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Full text of "Fences"

BLM LIBRARY 




Old Management 



Technology & Development Program 




July 1988 
2400— Range 
8824 2803 







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BM USRARY 

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DENVER '?£D£'RAk CENTfcn 

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DENVER, CO 80225-0047 



Sponsored by 

Vegetative Rehabilitation and 

Equipment Workshop 

Prepared by 

Missoula Technology & Development Center 

Richard Karsky 

Project Leader 

July 1988 

5E42D31— Range Structural Equipment 



Q^Acki\pwledgmer\ts 



The Vegetative Rehabilitation and Equipment 
Workshop (VREW) is an informal group of Federal 
and State agencies, universities, professional organ- 
izations, and private citizens concerned with 
effective land management practices. 

This handbook was prepared at their request by 
the USDA Forest Service Technology and Develop- 
ment Center at Missoula, Montana. Bill Duffy, 
MTDC Equipment Specialist, was the primary 
author; Brad McBratney, MTDC Equipment Special- 
ist, Brenda Holland and DeLynn Colvert completed 
the text and illustrations. Questions should be 
directed to Richard Karsky, Project Leader, 
Missoula Technology and Development Center, 
Bldg. 1, Fort Missoula, Missoula, MT 59801. 



11 



Disclaimer 



CAUTION: Pesticides can be injurious to humans, 
domestic animals, desirable plants, and fish or 
other wildlife— if they are not handled or applied 
properly. Use all pesticides selectively and care- 
fully. Follow recommended practices for the 
disposal of surplus pesticides and pesticide con- 
tainers. 

The mention of products and companies by name 
does not constitute endorsement by the USDA, 
nor does it imply approval of a product to the 
exclusion of others that may also be suitable. 



:^y;: ;:;;::: :J.:v;,- :ii .: 



Contents 



Introduction 1 

Planning 3 

Gathering Site Information 3 

Locating The Fence 4 

Choosing A Fence Design 4 

Clearing The Right-Of-Way 8 

Laying Out The Fence 8 

Safety 11 

Components 13 

Braces And Posts 13 

Brace Designs 15 

Gates 56 

Materials 75 

Tools 79 

Fence Options 83 

Electric Fences 84 

Wire Fences 139 

Wood Fences 187 

Bibliography 205 

Index 209 



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IV 



Introduction 



As part of the continuing effort to develop and 
test revegetation equipment and provide informa- 
tion about suitable equipment to land managers, 
the Vegetative Rehabilitation and Equipment 
Workshop (VREW) has consolidated structural 
improvement handbooks now scattered through 
every agency into three volumes : 

Fences 

Facilities for Handling, Sheltering, and Trailing 

Livestock 
Water— Pumping, Piping, Damming, and Storing 

This volume describes components and uses of 
fences and gates and their advantages and dis- 
advantages; costs; and safety, environmental and 
construction features. Pertinent books and articles 
are included in the Bibliography. The handbook is 
intended for use by private, federal, and state range 
land managers. 

Fencing controls the movement of livestock, 
other animals, and people. Fences help manage 
grazing and they protect animals, people, and 
vegetation. 

Costs and potential environmental impacts of any 
fence dictate careful planning. New materials, 
designs, and construction practices have reduced 
the cost of some fences, but considerations for 
wild animal movement, esthetics, recreation, and 
the environment may increase costs. Timing is 
also important. Post hole diggers and post drivers 
operate better in the spring when the ground is 
moist but not muddy. The availability of labor and 
material may also affect timing. Therefore, ob- 
jectives must be carefully studied before a fencing 
operation begins. Careful planning will insure 
maximum benefits. 

Costs cited in this handbook are general and 
intended to provide a basis for comparing various 
fence designs. Costs in your area may be somewhat 
different than those we have cited. 



The following procedures are presented in the 
order most fencing operations would follow: 

1. Coordinate planning with all appropriate land 
owners and managers 

2. Gather site information and choose an appro- 
priate fence design 

3. Secure easements and clear right-of-way 

4. Survey and mark land lines 

5. Locate fence line 

6. Choose fence design 

7. Layout fence 

8. Plan spacing and location of braces, posts, 
gates, and cattleguards 

9. Set corner, gate, and line braces 

10. Set line posts 

11. Stretch wire 

12. Place stays 

13. Ground all wire fences 

14. Set gates and cattleguards 




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(Photo courtesy University of Montana Mansfield Library.) 



Planning 



The first objective when building a fence is to plan 
its construction carefully. Analyze the site; 
consider its topography, its soil, its vegetation; 
the materials available and their costs. Consider the 
users of the area to be fenced— both people and 
animals. Choose an appropriate design. Secure 
easements, clear right-of-way, locate the fence, 
and lay it out. 

It is essential that you coordinate planning with 
anyone who will be affected by the fence. Even 
when constructing a fence on your own land for 
example, wildlife migration routes may be dis- 
turbed, so wildlife managers should be consulted. 
Consult people who may have permits or leases on 
or near the area to be fenced. You may want to 
consult conservation organizations; federal, state, 
and local government agencies that adjoin the area; 
state highway departments; authorized public land 
users; people who use public access sites; adjacent 
land owners. Cooperation with all those affected 
will help avoid possible conflicts and, more impor- 
tantly, make the fence an effective resource tool. 



Gathering Site Information 

A variety of fence designs are available to fit the 
needs of a site. Consider topography, soil type, 
visual impacts, recreation use, moisture conditions, 
wild animal use, and run-off before you chose a 
design. No single fence design will fit all conditions 
and if appropriate choices are not made, fences will 
fail. 

Proposed fences must not be constructed in areas 
planned for future energy, minerals, and 
road development unless : 

a. The fence will not be affected by develop- 
ment or is a required part of the development; 

b. The principal features or components of 
the fence can economically be salvaged and used 
again; 

c. The benefits yielded before the fence is 
destroyed or abandoned exceed the cost of 
installing and maintaining the fence. 



The analysis of the fencing site should include : 

1. Type of So il— Sandy soils will require more 
braces and closer spacing than firm soils. Rocky 
soils may require fences built of rock jacks with 
figure-four posts or straddle jacks. Marshy areas 
may require the construction of figure=four or 
straddle jack posts with long flotation boards that 
keep the fence on top of the marsh. 

2. Topography— Do not fence into areas where 
animals are naturally obstructed. Fencing in a 
straight line up a hill may cause erosion. However, 
fences should be on as straight a line as possible 
to reduce the costs. Use the lay of the land to 
make the fence most efficient. Getting materials 
to steep sites adds expense. 

3. Snow Conditions— Areas of light snow usually 
do not require special fencing designs. However, 
blown snow will approximate heavy snow 
conditions and may require special fence designs. 
Moderate snow requires stronger fence than light 
snow. Fences exposed to heavy snow require 
straddle jacks with wire or pole fencing, or worm, 
block and log, post and pole wood fences or 
let-down fences. Be sure to check the proposed 
fence line during late winter or early spring. This 
allows you to identify problem areas and design 
the most appropriate fence. 

4. Water— Fences across gullies or streams may 
require special braces and designs. Seasonal runoff 
needs break-away fences or swinging water gaps. 
Swinging water gaps or floating water gaps should 
span running streams. 

5. Accessibility— Fences should have easy access 
for construction and maintenance. Fences have to 
be constructed where they will accomplish planned 
objectives, but construct them in the most access- 
ible area possible. Power fences must have access 
to a power supply— a main line, a solar power 
panel, or easily exchanged batteries. 

6. Boundaries— External property boundaries 
should be located, surveyed, and marked before 
construction. Existing fences usually figure 
strongly in disputes, so accurate boundaries are 
essential. Fences along state or county highways 
may be governed by state or county laws. 
Coordinate your planning with appropriate 
officials and with adjacent land owners. This not 
only avoids disputes, but may open opportunities 
for cost-sharing. 



7. People Access— Consider installing narrow 
walk-through gates, post pass-through openings, or 
other access structures to improve esthetics and 

8. Visual Impact— Select a form, line, color, and 
texture that blends with the landscape. The most 
critical locations are along major travel routes and 
across openings. As much as possible, keep fences 
out of view. Where practical, fences should be 
placed slightly inside vegetation surrounding 
openings. Landforms may reduce visual impact. 
A fence across a slope, viewed against a landform 
and vegetative background, is less offensive than 
one silhouetted against the sky. Avoid bulldozer 
clearing or major soil disturbance. 

9. Vegetation— Fences may protect natural 
wetlands, streambanks, woodlands, and plants. 
Keep fences away from heavy vegetation and 
areas of potential blowdown. 

10. Animals— Various kinds of animals (horses, 
cattle, sheep, elk, and deer) and classes of animals 
(different ages and sexes) may require specific 
fence designs. Fences can be built to accommodate 
or exclude wildlife. 

11. Safety— All wire fences must be grounded to 
protect man and animals from lightning. 
Grounding should be done at both ends of the 
fence line, at each brace panel, on both sides of a 
gate, on both sides of a power line crossing, and 
where there is excessive moisture Drive galvan- 
ized pipe into the ground at these sites and attach a 
ground wire from this pipe to all the fencing wires. 
Precautions should be taken to insure the safety of 
construction and maintenance crews. 



Locating The Fence 

Fence lines should be carefully surveyed and 
clearly marked. Established fences are often the 
subject of court cases, so be particularly careful in 
surveying and marking boundary fences. Fence 
lines to be built inside property lines can be 
located wherever they meet the land manager's 
objectives. These objectives include managing 
vegetation, livestock, wildlife; controlling access 
to water, gullies, heavy snowbanks, marshes, 
wildlife migration routes, or areas of high visual 
impact. When fencing water, be sure to consider 
wildlife access. Consider the topography of the 
site in locating your fence and plan to keep con- 
struction and maintenance costs as low as possible. 

Choosing A Fence Design 

The fence design that you choose depends on a 
number of factors including the intended purpose, 
visual impact, soil types, vegetation, topography to 
be crossed, maintenance requirements, materials 
available, labor and material costs, weather, and 
expected life span. No single factor determines 
the design of fence. Weigh your priorities and 
choose a fence based on your goals and needs. 
For example, a 2-strand smooth wire fence will not 
keep buffalo in, but can effectively direct people. 
Or, a high tensile wire fence with fiberglass posts 
is a good choice in areas of high snow. The 
following tables list common designs, their advan- 
tages and disadvantages, and a rough estimate of 
their costs. By considering all your needs and 
goals carefully, you can insure the most effective 
fence possible for the area to be fenced. 



A Summary of Fence Designs 



Fence Type 



Advantages 



Disadvantages 



Costs 
Maintenance Material Labor Total 

Rating $/Mile $/Mile $/Mile 



Conventional 
4-strand barbed 
wire 



Skills & designs for 
construction readily 
available. 



Labor & material costs 
high. 



Medium $2,100 



$2,000 $4,100 



Gancho 4-strand 
barbed wire 



Longer life than 
conventional barbed 
wire. 20-30% less 
expensive than con- 
ventional barbed 
wire. Lighter weight, 
less strain. 



Wire less workable than 
conventional barbed 
wire. 



Unknown 2,000 



2,000 



4,000 



Woven wire w/top 
2-strand barbed 
wire 



Skills and designs for 
construction readily, 
available. Good control 
of sheep & cattle. 



Labor & material costs 
high. 



Medium 



2,800 



2,000 



4,800 



Let-down fence 
4-strand barbed 
wire 



Prevents fence damage 
in high snow pack & 
high wildlife con- 
centration. 



Labor & material costs 
high. Life span short 
because of wire 
corrosion. 



High 



3,500 



2,300 



5,800 



High-tensile 8-strand 
smooth wire 



Durable. Less expensive 
to install & maintain than 
conventional barbed wire. 
Withstands more than 
other wire. No barbs. 



Requires special equipment 
& techniques to. install. 



Low 



1,700 



900 



2,600 



High tensile 
10 -strand 
smooth wire 



Very durable. Less 
expensive to install 
& maintain than 
conventional barbed 
wire. Withstands 
more than other wire. 
No barbs. 



Requires special 
equipment & 
techniques to 
install. 



Low 



1,900 



1,000 



2,900 



Conventional barbed 
wire suspension 
w/wood stays 



Conventional barbed 
wire suspension 
w/wire stays 



Few posts. Low costs. 
Long life. Alternative 
for interior & cross- 
fencing. 



Fewer posts. Low costs. 
Long life. Alternative 
for interior & cross- 
fencing. 



Not appropriate in rough Low 1,200 600 1,800 

broken country or in 
areas of tall, dense 
vegetation. Won't detour 
cattle near water. Great 
down-fence distance 
w/post breakage. 

Not appropriate in rough Low 900 500 1.400 

broken country or in 
areas of tall, dense 
vegetation. Won't 
detour cattle near water 
Great down-fence dis- 
tance w/post breakage. 



High -tensile smooth 
wire suspension 
w/wood posts 



Few posts. Low costs. 
Long life. Alternative 
for interior & cross- 
fencing. 



Not appropriate in rough 
broken country or in 
areas of tall, dense 
vegetation. Won't detour 
cattle near water. Great 
down-fence distance 
w/post breakage. 



Low 1,100 



600 



1,700 



A Summary of Fence Designs (continued) 

Fence Type Advantages Disadvantages 



Costs 
Maintenance Materia] Labor Total 

Rating $/Mile $/Mile $/Mile 



High -tensile smooth 
wire suspension 
w/steel posts 



Permanent electric 
conventional, 
barbed wire 

Portable twine & 
3-strand electric 



Permanent electric 
high-tensile, smooth 
wire, post & stays. 

Jackleg - wire fence 



Rock jack & 
figure "4" 



Jack leg - pole 



Post & pole 



Worm 



Log & block 



Few posts. Low costs. 
Long life. Alternative 
for interior & cross- 
fencing. 



Lower costs than con- 
ventional barbed wire. 
Long life. Versatile. 

Lightweight portable 
easily adjustable. 



Durable. Low cost. Good 
psychological barrier. 
Less maintenance. 

Very durable. Withstands 
heavy snowfall. Useful in 
areas where it is hard to 
dig or drive posts or on 
marshy ground w/use of 
floation boards. 

Useful in areas where it 
is hard to dig or drive 
posts. Good in light 
to heavy snow. 

Durable. Withstands 
heavy snowfall. Used in 
areas where digging or 
driving is impossible. 

Durable. Withstands heavy 
snowfall. 

Durable. Withstands heavy 
snowfall. 



Durable. Withstands 
heavy snowfall. 



Not appropriate in rough 
broken country or in 
areas of tall, dense 
vegetation. Won't detour 
cattle near water. Great 
down-fence distance 
w/post breakage. 

Not appropriate in rough 
broken terrain. 



Weathers poorly. Don't 
use in lengths over 
1,000 feet. 

Not a physical 
barrier. 



Low 



800 



400 



1,200 



High material & labor 
costs. 



High material & labor 
costs. 



High material & labor 
costs. 

If logs not available, 
high material costs. 
Labor intensive. 

If logs not available, 
high material costs. 
Labor intensive. 



Low 



High 



Low 



Low 



1,000 



1,000 



300 



40 



1,300 



1,040 



800 400 1,200 



Low 



Low 



Low 



Low 



Low 



Suspension fence 



Seimisuspension fence 



Few posts, less cost. 
Little maintenance. 
Long lasting. Low- 
cost alternative for 
interior and cross- 
fencing. 



Few posts, low cost. 
An alternative for 
interior or cross- 
fencing. 



Not appropriate in rough, Low 

broken country. Not 
suitable in tall, dense 
vegetation. Not an 
effective cattle 
deterrent near watering 
points. Greater down- 
fence distance with post 
breakage. 

Suitable only for flat Low 

or slightly undulating 
terrain. Not as good a 
cattle deterrent as 
suspension or conven- 
ional fences. 



850 



450 



1,300 



Fence Design Based on Site Conditions 



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Site Condition Fence Design 



Sandy Soil 



Marshy Soil 



Rocky Soil 



Loam or Clay Soil 

Steep Ground 
Heavy Snow 

Ridgeline 

Water Discharge 



Double-end line and gate 
braces— spacing up to 
80 rods (W-mile). Single-line 
braces— spacing up to 
40 rods (1/8-mile). Use 
of deadman on corner, end 
and gate braces. Use two 
diagonal braces or one 
horizontal brace with a 
diagonal brace on corner, 
end, or gate location. Need 
to strengthen ground- 
holding capacity. 

Add mud sills (two long 
poles or boards) to the 
bottom of a jackleg, 
straddle jack, buck, or 
figure-four fence. 

Use rock jacks or rock 
cribs for braces. Use buck or 
jacklegs or figure-fours for 
line posts. May want to 
install steel or fiberglass 
posts. 

Single-end line and gate 
braces, spacing up to 80 
rods. 

Put line posts in 
perpendicular to the land. 

Jackleg, straddle jack, or 
buck fence with wire or 
pole fencing; post and pole 
fence; worm fence; log and 
block fence. 

Often a good fence-line 
location. Easy to maintain 
and allows effective manage- 
ment. Consider a single- 
strand wire. 

Infrequent— Normal fence 
construction with fence 
held in depressions with 
weights attached to the 
posts. 

Seasonal or Frequent— 
Construct end braces on 
either side of depression. 
Construct independent 
braces for fence in 
depression. Build 
break-away fence in 
depression. Build swinging 
or floating water gap fence. 

Running Stream— Construct 
end braces on either side 
of stream. Construct sep- 
arate braces for holding 
swinging or floating water 
gap fence. 



Site Condition Fence Design 



Wildlife Exclusion 
Fences 



Visual Impact 



Difficult Accessibility 



Fences for Wildlife 



Deer— Electric fence 
designs: double deer fence; 
6 ft, 6 in high 10-strand 
high -tensile strength fence; 
8 ft high 15-strand high- 
tensile strength fence. 

Antelope-Electric fence 
designs: 6 ft, 6 in high 
10-strand high-tensile 
strength fence; 8 ft high 
15-strand high-tensile 
strength fence. Woven wire 
fence 32 in high with one 
barbed wire strand on the 
top. 

Elk— Power fence designs: 
8 ft high 15-strand 
high-tensile strength fence. 

Wood fences are generally 
more pleasing in areas of 
high visitor use. Use 
standard fence designs 
for low visual impact. 

Use steel line posts for 
reduced weight and bulk, 
or consider fiberglass posts 
with a few wood posts for 
added strength. 

Deer— Fence height: 
min. 38 in to max. 42 in. 
Spacing between top and 
second wire 12 in. Moveable 
top wire or two. 

Antelope— Cattle fence 
height: min. 38 in to 
max. 42 in. Bottom wire 
at least 18 in above the 
ground. Bottom wire 
should be a smooth wire. 
Sheep fence height: 
min. 38 in to 

max. 42 in. Bottom wire- 
smooth at least 10 in above 
the ground. Leave out fence 
stays in areas where 
antelope frequently cross. 
Provide small cattle guards 
at 1-mile intervals for 
antelope to jump over. 
Moveable bottom wire or 
two. 

Elk— Fence height: 
min. 38 in to max. 42 in. 
Attach wooden rail to top 
wire for visibility. Construct 
let-down fence. All fence 
posts should be wood. 



Clearing The Right -Of -Way 

Clearing is usually accomplished at the same time 
the fence line is layed out. Rights-of-way should 
be cleared at least wide enough to permit easy 
construction and maintenance. If the terrain 
permits vehicle access, clearing should all be on 
one side of the fence. Adjacent landowners may 
cooperate in constructing boundary fences and 
clearing on both side of the fence may be mutually 
beneficial. 

Wire should be strung on the cleared side of the 
posts. All division or drift fences should be cleared 
at least 4 feet on each side of the fence line. 

Avoid straight line swaths up mountain sides or 
hills that cause undesirable visual effects. Leave an 
occasional tree and shape the side of the right-of- 
way to have an undulating or ragged edge. 

Slash from clearing along interior and exterior 
boundary fences should be used for erosion control 
or dispersed or burned. Slash should be lopped and 
scattered off the right-of-way. Dead or leaning 
trees on or near right-of-way lines should be 
removed. Down logs should be removed only if 
they will interfere with construction and main- 
tenance or create a hazard. Logs can sometimes 
turn runoff on slopes away from the right-of-way. 
Bulldozers may effectively be used for clearing 
and providing access routes for crews, equipment, 
and material, but avoid unnecessary soil disturb- 
ance. Implements like the Klearway brush cutter, 
the Hydro-ax brush cutter, and horizontal 
shredders chop brush and leave it on the ground 
as a mulch and disturb very little soil. 



Laying Out The Fence 

When the right-of-way has been cleared and the 
fence has been properly surveyed and marked, 
follow these procedures in laying out the fence: 

To lay out fences in heavy undergrowth : 



1 



Hold a 1 2- to 1 5-foot flag at the end of the 
fence line with the heaviest growth. Check the 
pole with a level to make sure it is vertical. 



FLAG 

12' to 15' POLE 

LEVEL 




Place a 5-foot stake at the other end of the 
fence line. 



POLE 



POLEB 




5' STAKE AT 
OTHER END 



3 Sight from short stake, B, to pole. Align stake 
C as far into the thicket as it can be seen. 




SHORT . 
STAKE 



Clear area between stakes B and C for a 
distance beyond stake C. 




*";V--., 



NEWLY 
- CLEARED 
• AREA 



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5 Continue to place stakes until line is completed. 




& >* 



' i.H 



NEXT 
STAKE 



^ 



NEWLY 

CLEARED 

AREA 



To lay fences across open, level areas: 



I 



Set a stake at each end of the proposed fence 
line. Station someone at one of the end stakes 
to help align the remaining stakes. 




END 

STAKE 



END STAKE 



Align and set a stake about 100 feet from the 
end stake. 




Continue setting additional stakes about every 
100 feet until complete fence line is staked 
Align each stake with the end stakes. This is 
easily done with the help of a person at the 
end stake sighting through to the other end 
stake. 




To lay out fences on open rolling areas : 



To lay out fence line on contour: 



IS 



Set a stake at each end of proposed fence 
line, stakes A and B. 




ENDS OF PROPOSED FENCE LINE 



Place two stakes about 10 feet apart on top 
of the hill so both are visible from either end 
stake. In case of a valley, place stakes at the 
lowest position in the valley. 



ALIGN 
STAKES 



Align the two center 
stakes, C and D, from 
one of the other end 
stakes 



D 




Check alignment of the center stakes from 
the other end stake. Center stakes may have 
to be moved several times before satisfactory 
alignment can be secured from both end 

stakes. 




11 



Stake out a smooth curve along a contour strip 
or terrace. Space stakes about 16 feet apart. It 
following a terrace ridge, place stakes below the 
ridge so the terrace can be maintained. 



ROAD OR DITCH k^" 

,1 





SMOOTH CURVE 
ALONG TERRACE 



STAKES 



^>| 



2 If there is much curve at any one point, select 
three stakes at the points of greatest curvature. 

1J Stretch string between the first stake, A, and 



the third stake, C. 

Measure di 
the string. 



A Measure distance from the center stake, B, to 



STAKES A-B-C 

(3 stakes at points 

of greatest curvature) sj 



.16 



Y t (W^ 




10" 



If the center stake is more than 4 inches from 
the string, decrease the spacing based on the 
following tabulation: 



Post Spacing for Contour Fences 



Distance from center 


Recommended 


stake to string 


post spacing 


inches 


feet 


4 or less 


16 


4-5 


15 


5-6 


14 


6-8 


12 


8-14 


10 


14-20 


8 



r> Set posts to the recommended spacing. 
J Repeat steps 3 to 6 wherever there is a curve. 



8 



Check by sight to see that no single post is out 
of line of the smooth curve. Keeping a smooth 
curve will insure that fence wire will pull equally 
against each post. 



RESET STAKES 
ACCORDING TO fe 
TABULATION 




Safety 

Precautions must be taken when constructing 
fences. Anyone building fences is subject to cuts 
and scratches as well as other accidents. Accidents 
and injuries can be prevented by always observing 
safety precautions: 

1. Wear tightly woven, tough clothing. 

2. Wear heavy-duty, gauntlet-type leather gloves 
that fit snugly. 

3. Wear long pants and high work shoes with 
heavy soles. 

4. Have the right tool for each job; keep it in 
good condition; and use it only according to 
manufacturer's directions. 

5. Wear safety goggles or eye shields when 
cutting or tensioning wire, and when driving nails 
or staples. 

6. Never carry nails or staples in pants pockets. 
Use a nail apron or tool bag. 

7. Use proper shields on power equipment. 

8. Wear a hard hat and ear plugs or ear muffs 
when operating power equipment. 

9. Use driving caps on posts as recommended by 
the driver manufacturer. 

10. Keep children and livestock away from all 
fencing operations. 

11. When handling, driving, drilling, nailing, or 
stapling chemically -treated wood posts or lumber, 
wear face shields and rubber gloves. Cover 
unprotected skin. Some people are allergic to 
wood-preserving chemicals. 

12. Never take shortcuts or eliminate such items 
as safety wires on twitch or twist sticks. 

13. Pick up all cut ends of wire, dropped staples 
and nails. They can cause injury to humans, be 
eaten by grazing livestock, or damage mower 
blades. 



14. Suspend all 
electrical storms. 



fencing operations during 



11 



15. Install proper ground wires to wire fences as 
soon as they are erected. 

16. Remember that any wire is an excellent 
conductor. Be careful when stringing guide wires or 
line wires so they do not contact power lines. Do 
not install fences under power lines or near buried 
power lines. 



When you have completed the site analysis, located 
the fence, chosen an appropriate design, cleared 
the right-of-way, laid out the fence, and analyzed 
safety needs, a review of the proposed fencing 
operation with all those affected will insure that all 
resource values and needs are met before construc- 
tion begins. 




Y< 



12 



Components 



Braces, corner posts, and line posts are the most 
important components of a fence, since they 
determine its effectiveness and life expectancy. 
Gates, cattleguards and less common components 
like stiles, ladders, and walk-throughs may be 
included, depending on the needs at your site. 

Braces and posts can be installed in a variety of 
ways and they are made from a variety of 
materials— wood, steel, fiberglass and plastic. 
Careful planning will help you determine the 
components appropriate for your fence. 

Materials, tools, and construction techniques are 
described. 



Braces And Posts 

The first step in constructing a fence is to plan and 
place braces and corners. Braces determine the 
structural soundness and longevity of any fence 
line. Corners are braces that are located where 
there is a change in fence direction. If any brace or 
post fails, there is a loss of wire tension and fence 
effectiveness. Design and spacing are determined 
from such factors as the number of strands of wire 
used (3 to 15), the type of wire (barbed, woven, 
high tensile strength), soil type (sand, loam, clay), 
terrain (level, hilly), animals to be restrained, etc. 

Braces may be constructed with either wood or 
steel posts and in a variety of designs. The 
following table summarizes the most common 
designs. Shaded posts in the drawings are the 
tie-off posts. 



Corner, line, and gate or fence-end braces 
(strainers) are an important part of any fence. With 
the use of high tensile, smooth wire, these strainers 
are of even greater importance because of the 
necessity of maintaining the complete fence at 
the recommended tension. In recent years, the 
horizontal fence strainer has been accepted as the 
standard and strongest design. Because suspension 
fences are subjected to greater tension, double 
brace assemblies should be constructed every 
Vi-mile (1,320 feet). In sandy, loose soils, braces 
may have to be placed every 1,000 feet. 



Fence braces fail because of : (1) structural failure; 
(2) soil movement or failure; (3) corner or end post 
pullout. Structural failure of an end brace is 
usually due to improper design, poorly selected 
materials, or over-stressed members. By carefully 
designing fence braces and properly proportioning 
and sizing the members, structural failures can be 
all but eliminated. Fence braces also fail when 
the soil is too weak to support the load, which 
allows the fence brace to move through the soil. 
Soil failures can usually be eliminated by using 
larger posts or by applying plates. Corner post 
pullout, when braces lift out of the ground, can be 
eliminated by using longer fence braces and placing 
cleats on the post. 



13 



Common Brace Designs 



Braces 

(Shaded Posts are the Tie-Off Posts) 



Horizontal 



Diagonal 



Straddle Jack 



Square Rock Crib 



Rock Jack 



Wire Fence Cribs 



Structurally strong. 
Construction procedures 
well known. 

Eight percent more re- 
sistant to overturn than 
standard horizontal brace; 
structurally equivalent to 
horizontal brace; twenty- 
five percent less expensive 
than horizontal brace. 

Stable; transfer fence 
angle to a single post; 
used where it is difficult 
to dig or drive posts. 

Used where it is difficult 
to dig or drive in posts; 
very stable; used as corner, 
end, gate, or in-line braces. 

Used where it is difficult 
to dig or drive in posts; 
very stable; used on 
corner, end, gate, or 
in-line. 

Used where it is difficult 
to dig or drive posts; 
very stable; used at 
corner, end, gate or 
in-line. 




Gate -* — r- 





HORIZONTAL BRACES 



DIAGONAL BRACES 



Corner, end, 
or gate post - 



■» — * — * — * 



=£&-> 



* — ** — * — *- 




« — ■ — * — *- 



Jfc — m — I * A 



^^M^^j^te- 



Buried deadman - — <^x 
STRADDLE JACK BRACES (2 types) 



SQUARE ROCK CRIB 



Fence 



WIRE FENCE CRIBS 





Support rocks 



14 



.:.-,.;■.:,. . . -,. . . 



Brace Designs 
Horizontal Braces 

Horizontal braces are structurally sound and appropriate 
for most fences. They are the most common brace 
constructed. 





Horizontal brace 
(compression member) 




I 




/ . 




Anchor post > 


. _ .. 


., 


1/ 








u 








\\ 


' — »»- 

Direction of fence pull 




ll 

1 I 1 

( 




-^ Twist stick 




Brace post 




u 


^^ 


Brace wire (tension member) 






^^ 


TU. 




-*$$% 


1 \\tfz. *ai£- 




i 


1 
i 

1" lean 


1 
1 
1 

I 







Parts of horizontal brace. 



8' (min) » 



8' (min) 




1 II 

(min) I | Double wire bracing ' 

i Ll ( twisted ) ! ' 



12' 



Spike (typ) 



,,, , . 5-6" dia 

4 bracing , 



L 



n^. 



1 1 



u 



Single panel end and gate brace. 



15 



■:■■:■■ -.smsBBiawm 



°~— — — — — - 



Kf~ : - : iC '^-W^-^^^r^ 








Post sunk into £t?I^^PBHKBHUIfilP^ : 
ground 42" (min) *fr -o, ^^^^|M|®fe^gg^A^P^l^^;. : X^ 



Single panel in-line braces. 






8' Brace (min) 



4" Dia 



Spikes (typ) 
5" Dia / 5—6" Dia 




Double panel end brace. 



16 



8" Dia 



4" Dia 




Double panel gate brace. 



5-6" dia 



4" bracing 

Twist stick 



Spike (typ) 




Double wire bracing 
(twisted) 



8' (min) 



Three-post double panel brace. 



17 



4" bracing 



Direction of stretch 



Twist sticks 

direction of stretch 



5-6" dia 




8' (min) 



10' 



I | 42" (min) 
U Do «ble wrap y Double wrap \J |_ 

(typical-center panel ) (typical -center panel ) 



8' 



10'- 



Four-post three-panel brace. 




Five-post four-panel brace. 



18 



Guy wire guard 



,""\ 




Maximum alignment change: 60° 



Note: Telephone anchors or mobile home anchors 
can be used for deadman. 



Angle guy with deadman. 



Dead end line wires. 
Wrap once around post 
and back on line wire. 



Brace 



8' (min) 




Deadman 



End guy with deadman. 



19 



.. .... , : . : .-- : .y v - . :;.-. ;■.-.;.■ ;. , .,■■?.■ .:. . ' T-. ■■,.;,■.■-..,:, /, . _ 




\ 

Interior horizontal deadman. 




Rock 



Interior diagonal deadman. 



8' braces 



V*" galvanized rod 



Turnbuckles 



Steel designs have been shown to have ample 
strength for end, corner, and in-line braces 




Clamp 



Horizontal steel braces. 



20 







;!»--. 


— - 






^\ S 




' :',/ 




■-&. 



Braces on the top and bottom of sleep slopes. 



The following schematic illustrates some basic 
horizontal brace designs and their spacing. Level 
terrain, firm soil and four strands of barbed wire 
are the only factors considered. 



-( J- 




66' — 660' barbed wire 

33' — 330' woven wire 
I 







if- 




660' — 990' barbed wire 
330' — 660' woven wire 



1 <r 



*<r 






21 



To install a wood or steel horizontal 
anchor-and-brace assembly, procede as follows: 

1. Mark ground line on anchor-and-brace posts. 
Set depth at least 3 feet, 6 inches. The deeper the 
post, the stronger it will be. 



2. Dig a 12-inch diameter hole for anchor post, 
3 feet, 6 inches deep. 

3. Place post in hole and tamp soil. Replace no 
more than 6 inches of soil at a time and tamp 
thoroughly. Install anchor post with a 1-inch lean 
away from the direction of fence pull. Check 
occasionally to see that it is properly aligned. 



4. Measure from anchor post to first brace 
post and dig hole for brace post. Use post or pipe 
that you selected for horizontal brace for 
measuring distance. It should be at least 8 feet 
long. If you are using lV6-inch pipe or larger, or 
2 1 /2-inch angle iron or larger, span length may be 
increased to 10 or 12 feet. 



1 



Mark ground line 
with crayon 



2 




Dig 12 -inch diameter 
hole 3'6" deep 



5. Place brace post in hole, but do not tamp. 



6. Mark hole for dowel 8 to 12 inches from top 
of anchor post. If using pipe or angle-iron brace, 
mark post for notching with member centered 
8 to 12 inches from top of post. 



7. Bore hole same size as dowel, 2 inches deep. 
Be sure to remove all shavings. For pipe or angle- 
iron, make notch about Vfc-inch deep. 



8. Bore same size holes to same depth in each 
end of horizontal brace member. 



9. Insert steel dowel in anchor post. 



Check post 

alignment 

occasionally 




Tamp soil 
around post 



10. Install brace member on anchor post. Position 
opposite end on brace post so brace member is 
parallel with ground line. 



11. Insert dowel in brace post. Mark hole for 
dowel in brace post. Bore hole in brace post same 
size as steel dowel, 2 inches deep. 



12. Install brace member between anchor post 
and brace post. Replace soil around brace post 
and tamp. 



4 



. Anchor post 



Use horizontal brace 
for measuring distance 



-jA g**"" ■ 3a g" e 



Horizontal brace 



aJi 



Brace post location 



22 




Insert steel dowel 




8" to 12" 




10 



Brace member 




Position brace member 
parallel with ground line 



Anchor post 




7 



Bore hole 2" 
deep for dowel 





Insert dowel 




Bore hole of same 
size and depth in 
each end 




Join brace member 
and brace post 



Replace soil 
and tamp 



23 



To install the brace wire : 

1 . Drive staple about half its length into brace 
post, about 4 inches above brace member on 
opposite side from brace. 

2. Drive staple in similar manner on anchor post 
about 4 inches from ground line opposite side 
from brace. 



5. Wrap wire around anchor post and return 
toward brace post. Leave enough wire length so 
end extends about two-thirds of way back to 
brace post. 



6. Cut brace wire from roll, allowing enough 
wire to wrap around brace post and extend 6 to 
12 inches past other wire end. 



3. Unroll enough brace wire for two complete 
loops around anchor and brace post. Use cord to 
determine length required. Do not loop wire off 
roll. Unroll it to avoid kinks. 



4. Thread end of brace wire through one staple 
and then through the other. Repeat to form three 
wire strands. Remove rough slack from wire. 



7. Make splice. 



8. Twist brace wire until whole assembly is rigid. 
Use a good strong stick, rod, or pipe approximately 
18 to 24 inches long. As wire is tightened, tap with 
hammer where it wraps around post so it will fit 
smoothly and remain tight. Leave member used for 
twisting in place. Twisting stick should be attached 
in such a way that it will not unwind. 



Staple 



1-6 




1 loop around brace post 



2 complete loops 



1 loop around brace post 



Staple 



24 




Completed splice 



Splice may be 
made with pliers 




Twist stick, pipe, or rod 
(18" to 24" long) 



Leave, in place 




Twist until wire is 
taut and assembly 
is rigid 



25 



Wooden brace posts can also be set by : 

First digging or augering a hole smaller or the same 
size as the corner, or gate, or first post of the 
line brace (for a 5-inch post, auger a 5-inch hole) to 
a depth 12 inches short of the recommended 
depth. Then, placing the anchor post in the hole 
and driving it to the correct depth (not less than 
42 inches). Finally, installing the anchor post with 
a 1-inch lean away from the direction of fence pull. 



If this method cannot be followed because the hole 
is larger than the post, then backfill 4 to 6 inches 
before tamping. Install the anchor post with a 
1-inch lean away from the direction of fence pull. 



Measure the distance needed for the horizontal 
brace (compression member) and mark the spot 
for the brace post. Make sure the posts are aligned 
with the fence line before setting the brace post. 
Follow the same procedure as with the corner, end, 
gate, or first post of a line brace (anchor post). 



Direction of 
fence pull 





.jfjjl Direction of 
fence pull 



£l^*— 



'-. 



/.■ ; 




6" loose soil 




fe^ 



Tamped soil 



Setting wooden brace posts. 



26 



There are two methods for attaching the horizontal 
brace (compression member): 

1. Drill a 3/8-inch hole 2 inches deep into the 
anchor post all the way through the brace post and 
into both ends of the horizontal brace. Drive a 
4-inch long 3/8-inch steel dowel into the anchor 
post and a 10-inch long 3/8-inch steel dowel into 
the brace post until it is flush with the inside of the 
post. Drive the horizontal brace into the 2 inches 
of steel dowel sticking out of the anchor post. 
Now, while supporting the horizontal brace, drive 
the 10-inch steel dowel into the aligned hole of the 
brace pole. This will leave some of the steel dowel 
sticking out of the brace post to support the brace 
wire (tension member). Drive a 1-3/4 staple half its 
length into the outside of the anchor post 4 inches 
above the ground to hold the brace wire (tension 
members) down on this post. Place two wraps 
of No. 9 gauge wire or two wraps of No. 12V2 gauge 
high tensile wire around these two points and 
tie off with a figure-eight knot or use three 
compression sleeves and crimp the two wire ends 
together. A wrap tie around the steel dowel will 
also work (see below). Be sure to remove as much 
slack as possible before tying off. Twist this wire to 
the desired tension with a stick and secure the 
stick so the wire will not unwind. The second brace 
rail for a double brace will be drilled and the steel 
pin used to hold the brace rail. 



2. Notch out a hole on the inside of both posts 
by drilling holes and chiseling out with a wood 
chisel. Shape the ends of the horizontal brace 
(compression member) with an ax or saw if 
necessary. Set one side of the brace into the 
corner, end, or gate post (anchor post) and then 
bring the brace post up to the horizontal brace. 
Tamp around the brace post (a maximum 6-inch), 
then attach the brace wire (tension member) as 
described in method 1. It may be desirable to nail 
the horizontal brace to the posts. 



Nails (optional) Direction of pull 

" x 4" steel dowel 



3/8" x 10" steel dowel 



l"lean 




May be notched 



Attaching horizontal brace 



6" loose soil 



Compacted soil 



27 



Diagonal Braces 

A diagonal fence brace or strainer is structurally 
equal to the horizontal fence strainer. It requires 
one less post and only about half the labor to 
install. 

Diagonal 
fence strainer 



. — ^Lifc=. 




On a high tensile, smooth wire fence, one diagonal 
strainer can be used for a comer instead of two 
horizontal braces. 



Bend the high tensile, smooth wire around the 
corner and tie it to the corner post. A single 
diagonal strainer works well for corners greater 
than 90°, but cattle can straddle the brace and 
calves can go under it. To avoid the problem, use 
two diagonal strainers running at the same angle 
as the fence. These diagonal strainers should be 
used on corners that are less than 90° 



Diagonal strainer 



Diagonal 

strainer 




1 diagonal strainer 




'~~- a %^ 




To install a diagonal brace or strainer : 

1. Make the brace as long as possible. 

2. Be sure that the end of the diagonal brace 
that contacts the ground is free to move forward 
and that it is not blocked by a stake or post. A 
diagonal brace that bears against a stake or post 
reduces the ability of the strainer to resist pullout. 

3. Although the diagonal brace can bear against 
the corner post from the middle of the post to 
the top of the post, it is best to have the contact 
at the top. 

4. When installing a diagonal strainer, the corner 
post should be set first; then install the diagonal 
brace; then the bottom holding wire brace; and 
then attach the wires and set the tension. With 
this procedure, the lower wire brace will not have 
to be twisted tight. 

5. The diameter of the corner post should be 
as large as possible. 

6. If one diagonal strainer will not hold the 
fence tension, a second diagonal strainer should 
be installed with each strainer taking half the 
tension of the fence. 



28 



Fence tied off here so each strainer 
can take half the fence tension 




Use two diagonal strainers to hold soft soil. One 
horizontal and one diagonal strainer can also be 
used. Each of the diagonal strainers takes half of 
the tension in the fence; therefore, the fence must 
be tied off at each diagonal strainer. When using 
the diagonal strainer as a line brace, do not over- 
tension the brace wires or the vertical post can be 
jacked out of the ground. However, high tensile, 
smooth wire eliminates the need for line braces. 



Fence tied off at each 
diagonal strainer 




■**i 




1 horizontal and 1 diagonal strainer 



29 



The Kiwi Diagonal Brace requires less material 
and less construction time than a standard double 
brace while providing equal strength. Kiwi has 
developed construction techniques and high 
quality materials for this brace that are particularly 
well suited for high tensile fencing. 



Components for building the Kiwi Brace are : 

1. one 24-inch piece max -ten 200 high tensile 
wire 

2. one 6-inch x 8 foot pressure treated end 
(or corner) post 

3. one 4-inch x 10 -foot pressure treated diagonal 
post 

4. one Kiwi galvanized brace rod V^-inch x 
10 feet x 6 inches 

5. four 2-inch hot dipped galvanized staples 

6. one Kiwi reinforced concrete brace block 
4 inches x 12 inches x 20 inches 

7. one 3/8-inch x 10-inch galvanized brace pin 




Kiwi diagonal with a float foot. 



To construct the Kiwi brace : 

1. Drive 6-inch x 8-foot post, small end first, 
at least 42 inches into soil; or, set by hand, bit 
end first. Tamp soil tightly around post in 6-inch 
layers or use alternating 6-inch layers of dry 
concrete mix and soil. Soil moisture will set the 
concrete. 




42" (min) 



6" soil 




6" dry 
concrete 



Driven post 



Hand set post 
with bell bottom 



2. Place precast brace block approximately 
8 feet, 6 inches from end post. 



Precast brace block 



1 



i — m . 



8'6" 



End post 



I I 



I I 



U 



30 



Cut 



3. Hold 5-inch x 10-foot diagonal post in place 
and mark proper angles for cutting; then cut the 
appropriate amount from the diagonal post. 




4. Holding the cut 5-inch diagonal post between 
two top wire spacings, drill a 3/8-inch hole at a 
shallow angle (approximately 15°) through the 
diagonal post, and into the 6-inch end post; then 
drive the 10-inch brace pin into the hole. 



Brace pin 




Drill 3/8" hole 



5. Drill a 5/8-inch hole through the 6-inch end 
post about 4 inches up from ground level. Also 
drill through the 4-inch diagonal post in the 
brace block end. These holes should be drilled 
parallel to the ground and facing each other in 
line with the fence. 




6. Install brace rod (remove the nut and flat 
washer), leaving the curved washer in place. Start 
the rod into the previously drilled hole; drive it 
toward the block and insert into the bottom hole 
drilled into the diagonal post. Replace the washer 
and the nut and tighten the brace rod until the nut 
is snug against the diagonal post (approximately 
40 feet/pounds of torque). 




Staples 



7. Install the safety wire by stapling one end of 
the wire to the end post just below and to the side 
of the diagonal post; then staple again. Take the 
wire under, over, and underneath the diagonal 
post. Pull the wire tight and double staple the wire 
to the opposite outer edge of the end post. 



Safety wire 




Detail 



31 



For corner angles 90° or more, use single diagonal 
brace. 



Single diagonal brace 




More than 90 



For corner angles less than 90° , use two diagonal 
braces. 



2 diagonal 
braces 




Less than 90 



For 12° slope or less, set end post vertically. 



Set post 
vertically 




14 ° sloP e 



i • 
M 
1 1 



For more than 12° slope, set end post at right 
angle to terrain. 




4 twisted strands of 
No. 12 smooth wire 



Steel post at 45° angle 
with plate driven at right 
angles to fence line 




Plate 



Steel stretch panel. 



Smooth No. 9 wire 



Steel post at 45 angle with 
plate driven at right angle 
to fence line 




Wired or 
clamped 
solid 



Double wire 
twisted 



Plate at right angle 
to fence line 



Steel corner, angle, or gate panel- 



Steel diagonal-brace ends and corners have been 
used satisfactorily by setting the end or corner post 
in concrete and placing the diagonal braces in 
concrete. However, mixing the concrete and 
waiting for the concrete to cure add time and 
effort to the operation. 

Steel corner post 




Steel diagonal-brace ends : ; : j !* — Concrete 



82 



A steel dirt-set diagonal-brace end and corner has 
been found to withstand normal fence tension. 
It is simple, relatively easy to install, about half 
the cost of the steel horizontal-brace assembly, and 
it can be installed with a post driver. 




To install commercial fence brace panels, follow 
these procedures: 

1. Drive post No. 1. Post should be 7 feet long 
at least. 

2. Clamp large brace panel to the post. 

3. Drive Post No. 2. As the post is driven, angle 
it slightly for post hole driver to clear the brace 
panel. Be sure to keep the post tight against the 
brace panel. 

4. After driving Post No. 2., hold it tightly 
against the top of large brace panel. At the same 
time, secure both large and small brace panel at 
the top of the post with a clamp. Next, secure box 
brace panels at the bottom of the post. If rocky 
soil prevents post from fitting tightly against 
brace panel, use spacers (available at your dealer) 
between post and brace panel to insure a tight fit. 

5. Drive Post No. 3 and secure small brace panel 
to it. 

6. On slopes or grades, adjust the brace up or 
down to be sure that the leg is touching the 
ground. 



Post No. 1 



^T/tfy T~°°~* 




Adjust small brace 
panel on slopes or 
grades 




33 



This design may lead to 
Jj— high maintenance costs 




Screw in type anchor 



Low-cost tension member line brace to 
replace standard line brace. 



This design may lead to 
high maintenance costs 




«c> 



Rebar gives 
longer life than u 
if tie wires are 
buried 



Railroad 
tie plate 



!*3» 



Low-cost tension member line strainer 
using earth anchors for replacement of 
a standard line strainer. 



Swinging foot 
(wire tied tightly) 



5 
f'l 



' Bedlog 



Swinging foot 
(wire tied tightly) 




Direction of pull 




Stay block 




No. 8 wire 
(must pull at 
center of foot) 



1— Place foot in by hand 

2— Drive back of foot with hammer 

3— Staple with one staple 

4 — Continue driving foot until it is flat 
on the bottom of the hole 

5— Finish stapling (3 staples) 



Rot-proof material 
10 to 14 inches long 




Staple 
pattern 



4"-6" 



The New Zealand brace primarily used for electric fences. 



34 



Straddle Jack Braces 

Straddle jack braces are used in terrain where it 
is difficult to dig or drive posts. Straddle jack 
braces are very stable. 




Corner brace foot straddle jack fence. 




End brace or gate brace for straddle jack fence. 



35 



TWO METHODS OF ANCHORING FENCE BUCK: 




Anchor buck 
every 10th rod 



Where hole cannot 
be dug, cover large 
anchor stone with 
other stones and 
twist wire 



Method of anchoring 3 posts 
with 1 anchor stone 




50 to 75 lb 
stone 



Hole 2 to 3 feet deep 



Hole is directly below 
crotch on fence line 



This design may lead to high 
maintenance. Buried wires are 
susceptible to rust 



36 



Square Rock Cribs 



Square Rock Cribs may be used for fence corners, 
fence ends, or at gates where rock jack -post and 
figure-four fences are constructed. Or, they may be 
used to hold fence lines in place. They are stable 
and are constructed where it is difficult to dig or 
drive posts. 




Post 



Platform 



Alternate 
each way 



Nails 




TOP VIEW 



Rocks 




Use of square rock crib 
for crossing dry draws 



37 



:.■ ... ■■ ■■■ . . ■ 



The corner gate jack is an alternative to a rock 
crib brace. At gates and fence ends, the leg per 
pendicular to the fence should be shortened 
to about 5 feet. 



Brace rock 




Flooring (unnailed) 



8'0" corner jack 
4 '6" gate jack for 
leg perpendicular 
to fence line 



Rocks 

(about 500 lbs 
on platform) 




Ground piece 



Brace rock 



Diagonal brace 



Diagonal brace 




Flooring (unnailed) 
Joist 



Brace rocks 



CORNER VIEW 



~^-=^- 



■ Post 

Diagonal braces 



Flooring (unnailed) 




Ground 
piece 



Rocks 



Brace rock 



SIDE VIEW 



38 



Rock Jacks 

Rock Jacks are constructed where it is difficult 
to dig or drive posts. They are stable and can be 
constructed at corners, fence ends, gates, or in-line. 
They are constructed as follows: 





4Pt£ 



Notes: Posts are 5Vz" steel "T". 

Diagonal braces: 2 strands 12'A gauge 
barbed wire. 

All wires to be double wrapped 
around posts 

1 — Construct crib and set double "T" post. 

2— Allow 12" to 18" overlap No. 1348 
nonclimbable wire 3' high (tie crib 
wire to 4 posts at top, center, and 
bottom. 

3 — Stretch and tighten brace wires between 
crib and double "T" post (twist top 2 
brace wires together). 

4 — Fill crib with rocks less than 20" dia., 
max. void 6" largest measurement. 

5 — Stretch line wires to double steel posts. 




Double "T" posts 



— ,J40"(min)|-*— 



1 -i^- 




39 



Wire Fence Cribs 



Wire Fence Cribs are used where it is difficult to 
dig or drive posts. Wire fence cribs are stable. 
They are constructed at corners, fence ends, gates, 
or in-line. 




Wire cross tie 



». Fence 



4' woven wire, 2"x4 , 
12% gauge, 12'8"long 
formed to make crib 



Wire cross ties 



Splice ends together to 
form crib and staple together 

Level bed for crib 




Wire cross ties 



Fence anchor stay 
set on rock 



Rock crib corner post 



Rock crib gate post 



4' woven wire, 2"x4 
12% guage, secured 
around outside 5 'A' 
steel posts (4 posts) 



Treated timber placed 
in center of crib 



Use this wire only when gate 
is installed next to rock crib. 
The wire will be attached to 
the same post and within 2 
inches of the gate lever 




20" (min) 



2 strands 12% gauge 
barbed wire twisted tight 



Double steel posts 
used to stretch from 



Scrap iron anchor 



Rock crib. 



28" to 32' 



39" to 46' 




No rock spaces larger than 6" in crib. 
The woven wire ends will have 12" 
overlap and be wired to itself, using the 
ends of each longitudinal wire to make 
a splice with at least 4 turns. The wire 
shall be attached to each post in the crib 
at the top and bottom wires and at a 
minimum of 2 intermediate horizontal 
wires. 



40 



Corners And Gate Posts 

Corner and Gate Post Braces are perhaps the most 
important component of high tensile wire fences. 
These braces must be sturdy and durable. Pro- 
cedures for construction of various fence designs 
follow: 



Direction of pull 



8'x4" second 8'x5" first 

brace post T „, lof , M „,, brace post 



Twist stick 



Twist stick 



8'x6" 
gate post 



Gate installed after 
final wire tensioning 



U 



8'x6" 
end post 

M 



U. 



2 complete wraps 
max-ten 200 wire 



LJ 



Note : All leaned posts will 
be nearly vertical 
after tensioning 



I! 

u 



2" lean 




Direction of pull 



Direction of pull 




Ll 

8'x6" end 
end post 




a 



8'x4" second 
brace post 



Guide wire 

II 

Ll 

8'x5" first 
brace post 



All posts 
driven 4' 



ll 

I'- 
ll 

8'x6" 

end post 



Brace construction for high tensile fences of seven or more wires. 



Extended sight line \ 2 " lean 

T 



Change of direction 
greater than 20 but 
less than 60° 



Line wires 




Medium corner 
brace assembly 
(bisecting remaining 
angle) 



Note: Double brace assembly 
required when change 
of direction is greater 
than 60° 



6y2'x4" horizontal brace 

9" galvanized 
brace pin 




8'x5" line post 

(2" lean into line wires) 



«•» 4" galvanized 
brace pin 



6 h x4 ^^ i | 2 complete wraps ] 

brace post -" | . max . te n 200 wire I 
(1 lean i ' I , 

into line | | 

wires) rj I 



4' 



MEDIUM CORNER BRACE ASSEMBLY 



Corner brace construction for high tensile fences of seven or more wires. 



41 



Corner braces with deadman in line with each 
fence line reduces the required depth of end post 
embedment and provides needed stability in loose 
soils. The use of stainless steel wire eliminates 
rusting. 



4" dia. horizontal brace 
(8'-ll'long) 



fljS 



vt#* 



tf.?ft 




Deadman (optional) 



Three-post corner brace. 




Five-post corner brace. 



42 



HHHKfflfflnBBft 



An alternative to the corner post tie is the tie-off 
to the second post of a double corner panel brace. 
This tie-off will insure that even if the corner post 
fails, neither fence line will fail. It also eliminates 
force on the corner post. 




Use short piece of wire 
to go around corner post 




Tie-off to second post 



Tie-off to second post 



If you need extra strength in your end or corner, 
there are two other effective horizontal-brace 
designs. They do require more labor and more 
material : 

1. The Rosemount design has a two- or three- 
panel construction. The brace wires extend their 
pulling action over two panels at a time instead of 
one, which decreases the tendency of the end post 
to lift. The Rosemount horizontal brace is par- 
ticularly valuable where snow collects against the 
fence or where wind loads the fence with leaves 
and grass. 



Horizontal braces 




43 



:. IPIIIMIIIIIIIllMillinilll - 



2. The cross-brace, double-span assembly is 
another heavy-duty design. The fence is attached 
to the center post. The fence will be slack between 
the middle and the end post. 



Slack section of fence 



Fence attached here 



r * — * — * — **- 




Short, separate pieces of 
wire are attached here 



High tensile wire fences with up to six wires re- 
quire single-span brace assemblies at the beginning, 
end, and gate post locations, as well as at 90° 
corners. 



Direction of pull 



3/8"x9" 
dowel pin 



8'x4" horizontal brace 
Twist stick 

— a — 




Two complete wraps 
max-ten 200 wire 



8'x4" horizontal brace 



8'x5" brace post 



3/8"x4 ' 
dowel pins 



8'x6" corner post 



3/8"x9" 
dowel pin 




8'x5" brace post 



44 



Constructing End, Corner, And 
Gate Braces 



1. Having driven the end posts with a 2-inch 
lean opposite the direction of the wires' pull (and 
after you have strung and tensioned the guide 
wire), lay an 8-foot long by 4-inch diameter brace 
on the ground parallel to the guide wire and butt 
it against the end post to measure the location for 
driving the first brace post. Holding the guide wire 
out of the way, auger a 3-foot deep 3-inch 
diameter hole with a 1-inch lean opposite the 
direction of pull. 

2. Drive the first brace post (8-foot long by 
4-inch diameter) 4 feet deep. Leave 4 feet above 
ground. When the guide wire is released, it should 
touch the post. 

3. Hold the guide wire out of the way: Use the 
second 8-foot long horizontal brace to measure; 
auger a 3-inch diameter hole 3 feet deep with no 
lean. 

4. Drive the second (8-foot long by 4-inch 
diameter) brace post 4 feet deep. Leave 4 feet 
above ground. When the guide wire is released, it 
should touch the second brace post. 

5. On the end post, make a mark 44 inches up 
from the ground on the surface facing the far end 
post and drill a 3/8-inch hole 2 inches deep, 
parallel to the line wire. 

6. Drive a 3/8-inch by 4-inch galvanized steel 
dowel pin 2 inches into the end post. 

7. Mark the first brace post 44 inches up from 
the ground and drill a 3/8-inch hole through the 
post parallel to the line wires. 

8. Drive a 3/8-inch by 9-inch galvanized steel 
dowel pin into the first brace post. Stop when the 
pin is even with the surface of the post on the side 
facing the first pin. 

9. Mark the second brace post 44 inches up from 
the ground and drill a 3/8-inch hole through the 
post in the same manner as the first brace post. 

10. Drive a 3/8-inch by 9-inch galvanized steel 
pin through the second brace post. Stop when the 
pin is flush with the surface of the post facing the 
first brace post. 

11. Drill a 3/8-inch diameter hole 2 inches into 
the centers of both ends of the first and second 
8-foot long top horizontal braces. 



12. Lift the first horizontal brace and position it 
onto the pin in the end post. Align it with the pin 
on the first brace post and drive the pin 2 inches 
into the horizontal brace. Leave 2 inches of pin 
projecting from the first brace post to receive the 
second horizontal brace. 

13. At the end post, on the side opposite the 
pull of the wires, mark the post 4 inches above the 
ground and drive a 1-3/4 inch galvanized staple 
half its length horizontally into the post. 

14. Cut a 40-foot length of high tensile 
fence wire and bend a 6-inch loop on one end 
and hook it on the pin projecting from the first 
brace post. Maintain hand tension on the wire. 
Wrap the wire diagonally around the end post 
under the staple and over the pin on the first 
brace post. Complete two tight wraps in the same 
manner and hook the end of the wire over the 
pin in the first brace post. 

15. Pull as much slack out of the diagonally 
wrapped wire as possible. Adjust the final loop to 
maintain tension and staple the ends of the wires 
to the first brace post. 

16. Facing the diagonal wires on the side of the 
assembly opposite the livestock (wire) side, insert 
a lVHnch by 2-inch by 24-inch pressure-treated 
hardwood twist stick about 2 inches of its 
length between the four diagonal wires that are 
perpendicular to the diagonal wires so that the 
top of the twist stick rests against the 
horizontal brace. 



17. Using both hands, tilt the twist stick toward 
the end post to clear the horizontal brace and pull 
the twist stick toward you to twist the diagonal 
wires. Maintain a firm grip on the twist stick. 
Make six to eight complete revolutions, twisting 
the diagonal wires. Stop with the stick upright on 
your side of the horizontal brace. Tilt the stick 
back toward the first brace post so it rests against 
the horizontal member. 

18. Cut a 14-inch length of high tensile wire and 
double staple it over the twist stick onto the 
horizontal brace. 

Staples 




1 high tensile wire 



Twist stick 



45 



19. At the bottom of the end post, bend the 
horizontal staple over to secure the diagonal wires. 

20. Lift the second horizontal brace onto the pin 
to protect it from the first brace post. Align the 
other end with the pin in the second brace post. 
Drive the second brace pin 2 inches into the 
horizontal brace. 

21. Drive a staple horizontally into the back of 
the first brace post 4 inches up from the ground. 
Repeat the double wrap of high tensile wire and 
staple it as described. 

22. Twist up the diagonal wires on the second 
brace assembly, as described, and stay the twist 
stick. Bend over the staple at the bottom of the 
first brace post. 

23. At the far end of the fence line, repeat all 
operations necessary to complete a double-span 
brace assembly, which is a mirror image of the 
assembly at the starting end of the fence. All 
details must be followed to withstand the pull of 
the wires in the opposite direction. 

End post assemblies erected with these procedures 
will withstand the tension of the wires on all 
nonelectric as well as electric high tensile fences. 
If carefully constructed, braces should be close- 
fitting. You should not have to saw them shorter 
than their 8-foot lengths, nor have to notch the 
brace posts to fit them into position on the pins. 
In most soils, setting the final tension on the line 
wires will pull brace assemblies nearly into vertical 
alignment. 

Most pullout occurs at dog legs, small changes in 
fence alignment— up to 60 degrees. Small angle 
changes are difficult to hold. 



To prevent dog-leg failures : 

1. Install more brace panels at the dog leg. 



Alignment change 




More brace panels 



2. End each fence line with separate end braces. 




4" between posts 



3. Install a desirable panel corner brace and tie 
off each fence line to its first brace post. Then use 
short separate pieces of wire to go around the 
corner post. 



Alignment change 
up to 60° 



Tie-off posts 




46 




Dog leg failure- 



4. Install a deadman anchor tie-back on the 
corner post. 



Twist stick 



Guy wire 




Corner post 



Buried rock or log 



! ) 




Deadman anchor on corner post. 



47 



5. Install interior diagonal and/or horizontal 
deadman post. Animals may abuse these interior 
deadman posts. 




Line Posts 

Line posts are used to suspend the wire or rails of a 
fence. If there is a change in horizontal or vertical 
direction, a corner or brace is needed. Line posts 
can be metal, wood, plastic, or fiberglass. The 
fence design will dictate the type of post to be 
used, the size of posts, and post spacing. The depth 
the post is to be set will depend on the type of 
soil and the height of the fence. The type of line 
post chosen also depends on the vegetation in the 
area, the desired life expectancy of the fence, 
maintenance requirements, esthetics, or environ- 
mental factors. For example, a small steel post 
works well in a temporary electric fence, but is 
not adequate for a woven wire fence. The rec- 
ommendations below will help you determine 
proper spacing, size, and depth. 

Wood— Available in lengths of 5V2 to 8 feet and 
2Vi inches and larger in diameter. 

Reinforced concrete— formed to any desired size. 

Stee/-Available in 5-, 5^-, 6-, 6%-, 7-, and 8-foot 
lengths. The 6V2- and 7-foot lengths are easiest to 
obtain from most dealers. 



Fiberglass— Available in 4-, 5-, 5VI-, 6-, 6V2-, 7-, 
and 8-foot lengths. 

Plastic— Available in 5- to 7-foot lengths and is 
2-3/8 inches in diameter. 

Life expectancy of wood line posts varies with 
species. 

Line posts are usually set 2V2 feet into the ground. 
The deeper the post, the stronger it is. Increasing 
the post depth in loose soil will help prevent 
failure. Driven posts are more rigid than posts set 
in oversized holes and tamped . Posts set by hand 
can be firmly set if the hole is dug as vertical as 
possible, and no more than 6 inches of soil is 
tamped and compacted before adding the next 
6 inches to be tamped. 

Driven posts should have a dull point to displace 
soil around the post and compact the soil. A 
mechanical auger (auger diameter same size or 
smaller than post diameter) can be used to predrill 
post holes 12 inches shallower than the marked 
post depth: 



48 



■MwmpalBMaaiB^ 



MISmfllwrWlmWMaBMBWlmMll^^HMMM 



Life Expectancy of Treated and Untreated Fence Posts 













End Diffusion 


Double Diffusion Salt Treatments 


Untreated 




Treated Round Posts 


(Zinc chloride or (Copper sulfate (Osmose, 




Heart- 


Pressure 


copper napthenate** 


chromated zinc and sodium tanalith 


Kinds of Wood 


wood* 


copper napthenate** Hot 


Cold 


chloride) 


flouride) and celcure) 








Soak 


Soak 








years 


years 


years 


years 


years 


years years 


Osage Orange 


25-30 












Red Cedar 


15-25 


20-25 


20-25 


10-20 






Black Locust 


15-25 












Sassafras 


10-15 


20-25 


15-20 








White Oak 


5-10 


20-30 


15-30 


10-20 


8-9 




Blackjack Oak 


5-10 


15-25 


10-20 


10-20 


8-9 




Cypress 


5-10 


20-30 


15-30 








So. Pine 


3-7 


25-30 


15-20 


10-20 


10 


20-30*** 25*** 


Sweetgum 


3-6 


20-30 


20-30 


10-20 






Hickory 


2-6 


15-20 


10-15 


10-15 






Red Oak 


2-6 


20-30 


20-30 


10-20 


6 


17*** 


Sycamore 


2-6 


20-25 


15-25 


10-20 


8-9 




Yellow Poplar 


2-6 


20-25 


15-25 


10-20 


8-9 




Cottonwood 


2-6 


15-20 


10-15 


5-10 


5 




Willow 


2-6 


30 


28-37 


7-20 


5 




Ponderosa Pine 


4-14 


35 


30 


18 






Lodgepole Pine 


4-12 


35 


35 


20 






Rocky Mt. Juniper 


29 












Douglas Fir 


7-12 


20 


25 


2 






Aspen 


7-12 


20 


25 


20 






*Sapwood of all 


species rots readily in one 


to three years depending on local soil and weather conditions. 


**Data based on 


in absorp 


ion of 6 pounds 


ar more per cubic 


foot of wood with complete 


penetration of sapwood. 


All preservatives applied 


in an oil solution 


Posts barked and 


seasoned before treatment. 




***Water solution 


Vt - 1 pound of dry salt per 


cubic foot of wood. Posts must be green when treated. 


Prepared by the Coordinatet 


Wood Preservation Council, an organization of 


southern agricultural colleges and 


experiment stations; the Forest Utilization Services of the Sou 


thern and Southeastern Forest Experiment 


Stations', and the Division of 


Forestry Relation, T.V.A. Supplemented with references as numbered. Data for 


Rocky Mountain area posts 


were obtained from Forest Products Laboratory 


USDA, Report 


068. 



Post 

depth 

mark 





Dull point 



Auger Diameter Versus Post Size 



Post Size Diameter 

Inches 



v\ 1 




3-4 


30" 




4 -5 


a 4 


2" 

i 


5-6 

6-7 



Auger Diameter 

Inches 



49 



Comparative strength of posts is given in the 
following figure. Small values for each size of wood 
post are for northern white cedar; larger values are 
for white oak, jack pine, and tamarack. Most other 
species fall between these extremes. Strength is 
computed for force exerted 4 feet above ground 
line on green posts. 



3" dia. 



4" dia. 



5" dia. 



3" 



1" 



Breaking 
force 
required : 
400—700 lbs 



I ' 



Breaking 
force 
required : 
800— 1,500 lbs 



Breaking 
force 
required : 
1,400-2,700 lbs 



Breaking 
force 
required : 
295-310 lbs 



WOOD 



I I 



WOOD 



I 
I 

Li 

WOOD 



Force 
required: 
152—160 lbs 



CONCRETE 



u 

STEEL (studded "T") 



Approximate breaking strength of square concrete 
posts with 5-inch base and 3-inch top reinforced 
with four 3 -gauge wire is 295 to 310 pounds. The 
same post with 6-gauge wire reinforcement has a 
breaking strength of approximately 162 pounds 
(721 N). A post 3-5/8 inches x 3-5/8 inches top 
and bottom with 6-gage reinforcing wire has a 
breaking strength of approximately 132 pounds 
(data from Portland Cement Association). 

In straight and contour, open-field fencing any of 
the standard steel fence posts, standard 4-inch 
concrete posts, or 2 1 /6-inch or larger wood posts are 
satisfactory. For contour fencing lengthen the 
spans and use 4- or 5-inch wood or concrete posts 
for greater resistance to overturning. In sandy or 
wet soils use 4- or 5-inch posts to resist 
overturning. 

Fiberglass posts are much lighter than steel posts 
and withstand greater side stress. Fiberglass posts 
are completely rot-resistant and require no 
insulators for electrical fences. Fiberglass posts are 
set 20 feet apart. A wood line post should be set 
every 200 feet. If the posts are "T" shaped, they 
should be at least IVi-inches across and, if round, at 
least 3-3/8 inches across. 



Polypropalene plastic posts are stronger than a 
4-inch wood post. Ringed shank staples lVfc-inches 
long are used with this plastic post. They are rot- 
resistant and require no insulators for electrical 
fences. These plastic posts are not resistant to high 
temperatures and should not be used where 
burning is common. Because of their flexibility, 
plastic posts cannot be used in brace assemblies. A 
studded "T" post will withstand 152 to 160 
pounds, but will have a 1-inch permanent 
deflection. 






•U" BAR 



STUDDED "T v 



STUDDED "Y" 



50 



In loose or sandy soil post spacing should be as 
close as 10 feet. Additional stability in these loose 
soils is gained through increasing line post size, 
both in diameter and length. Plastic posts should 
always be driven. By increasing the depth of the 
post by one-third, resistance to overturning is 
doubled. Pre-tensioned deadman anchors drast- 
ically reduced required post depth. 

In rocky soils, jackleg or buck and figure-four 
posts eliminate digging or driving posts. 



Wire pretensioned 
to around 600 lbs 



Fence pull 





Jack leg or buck post. 



Crosstie No. 4 
smooth wire on 
anchor bucks 
every 10th buck 



d nails 
Leg wire 




Jack leg or buck post. 



51 



SLIDE AND SAW GUIDES 




I"x2"x8" 



Framing horse 

L 



I"x4"xl0" 



Framing horse for jack leg of buck mortice joints 



This cut makes the 
60° angle between 
the posts 




Center of post 




spikes 



This cut makes the 
80° angle between 
the posts. This cut 
is for fences subjected 
to severe winds. 




Center of post 



2 60d spikes 




52 



If possible the matching sides of a jackleg or buck 
post should be from the same or similar -sized logs. 



6' 



Both legs are cut the same 



12' 




The notch width of a post is determined by the 
diameter of the post it is to be matched with. 
The fit should be snug. 




These points 
touch each other 
when joined 



yqsgggg l 



To fit mortice joint together, place the high 
point of the cut on both legs together. 




1" markings to guage 
notch width 




1" markings to guage 
notch width 



Use a pattern board to guage notch width 



Post 




A longer leg is 
required for the 
low side of a hill 



Note : spike members together 
Diagonal brace post 




Barbed wire fence 

Brace 




TOP VIEW 



SIDE VIEW 



Figure-4 post. 



53 



1V4" staple 




About 300 lbs rocks 



-*fc-U 




Post 
Diagonal braces 



Platform 



Platform for rocks 
I 




TOP VIEW 



FRONT VIEW 



SIDE VIEW Ground piece rests on rocks 



Rock jack post. 



Typical fence layout 

for level topography, —f V- 

light snowfall ^t- Ju 



25' 

M. 



100' 

25' U. 25' 



P 



Rock Stays Fig. 4 
jack post 



25' 



|^^£ 




Rock 
jack 



Typical fence layout 
for steep topography, 
moderate snowfall 



75' 



25' 



25' 



Al 1 I -H I 1 i\ I I A 



25'- 



Rock stays Fig. 4 
jack post 



Rock 
jack 



Typical fence layout 
for steep topography, 
heavy snowfall 



50' 



25' 



m^ 



25'- 



Rock Stays Fig. 4 
jack post 



Rock 
jack 



Spacing diagrams for rock jack posts and figure-4 posts. 



54 



In swampy ground two long poles are attached to 
the bottom of jacklegs, bucks, or figure-four posts 
to act as floaters. These long poles, called mud 
sills, keep the posts from sinking into the wet 
soil. Either a pole or wire fence design may be 
used. 




A 15-to 17-percent increase of soil moisture can 
cause deflection rates to increase over seven times 
for a post depth of 2V£ feet. Therefore, under 
heavy rain or spring thawing conditions soils may 
become radically weak in bearing capacity. To 
solve this problem : 

1. Increase post depth to 3V2 feet. 

2. Increase post diameter from 2Va inches to 
4 or 5 inches. 



55 



.. .: ....:■ ■.,. . :■■.: v. . ■'■ ■" ;......■ ■'.. 



Gates 

Gates allow access to both sides of a fence. They 
can be opened for short or extended periods of 
time. Gates are made of wood, metal, wire, fiber- 
glass, plastic, or any combination of these 
materials. Any gate can be adapted to any fence 
design. However, for esthetics and ease of con- 
struction, it is best to build the gate to match the 
fence design. Some of the more conventional gate 
designs are shown below. 

The following gates are most often used with buck 
fences. 

In rocky ground where holes cannot be dug for 
gate posts, a sliding pole gate may be constructed 
between two bucks. Two spans on both sides of 
this gate should be braced. 



Two brace panels 
adjacent to both 
ends of gate 



Both ends of sliding poles 
must be flattened so poles 
can slide 



Telephone staple for 
attaching harness snap 





Harness snap on a short 
chain fastened to the 
jack keeps poles from 
being rubbed down 
by cattle 




Surface of the jack leg 
and the bottom of 
this pole should be 
flattened 



A swinging gate can be made for rocky ground by 
using 10-foot long gate bucks. 



These poles may have to be 
short because of difference 
in spread of jack legs 



Gate jack legs 10 feet long 



Double poles form top hinge 
and brace the gate jacks 




A horse shoe on a chain can 
be used to hook gate shut 



Treated plank or concrete block 
with pin into bottom of gate end 



Double poles form bottom hinge and 
must be nailed to cross bars on jack 



56 



Where the ground permits gate posts to be buried, 
gates can be made separate from the buck fence. 




Wire stays between wooden stays 



Gate posts wired to jacks with 
double wraps of no. 9 wire 



3 wooden gate stays 
at least 3" in diameter 




All gate loops are 
no. 9 brace wire 



4 barbed wires 
| on gate 

I J 42" (min.) 



i 



I I 

I 1 

u 



Poles nailed on both sides of gate post 



6" x 12' posts 
treated 4' on butt 



Eye bolts made from 3/4" 
rod with eye large enough 
to go around 3/4" pipe 

3/4" glavanized pipe 




57 




SECTION THROUGH GATE 



VIEW OUTSIDE OF GATE 



8" post 




To fit 
3/4" rod 



i 



I I 
I I 
l_ J 



3/8" x 5" bolts 



I 

36" (min) I 

J ' ' 



SECTION 



3" 



t*"~] 



TOP HINGE 




rm 



Post- 



Gate 



Hinge pin 



p z F 



BOTTOM HINGE 



EYE BOLT 



\AA/ 

Post 

-hi 



V\l\Ni 




Saw nick for flange 



Mowing machine section 
welded flat on hinge pin 



\ 



FLANGED HINGE PIN 
(to prevent turning of pin 
when gate swings) 



58 



WOVEN WIRE GATE: 



Mechanical gate closer 



Gate post spacing 16' 6" on center 



71/ 




4.-J 



9-gauge smooth wire loop / 

Four 3" wood stays evenly spaced 

9-gauge smooth wire loop or steel strap 



BARBED WIRE GATE: 




Gate post spacing 16' 6" on center 
3" (min) i_ 



LJ 6'"' (min) iZl 



us yriin ft / 



9-gauge smooth wire loop 



Four 3" wood stays evenly spaced 




Mechanical gate closer 



9-gauge smooth wire loop or steel strap 



L.J 




Gate post spacing 16' 6" on center 
3" (min) % 

*— m . — i - i — m — I — 



6" (min) 
9-gauge smooth wire loop 



Mechanical gate closer 





Tarm 



I i Four 3" wood stays evenly spaced 

Lj / 

9-gauge smooth wire loop or steel strap 



59 



WIRE GATE FASTENERS: 



5V4' 



1/8" chain 8" to 10" long 




End view of hooks, 
turn Vi around so 
hooks are to the sides 



Make large hook on one end of a half circle, 5 W to 
6" on the inside, bend down to an eye. Run through 
link in end of chain, bend at a right angle, then 
straighten 17", bend up at 90° 3", flatten 1" on end 
and split, bending one to each side, making two hooks 
to hook onto fence wire. 




When closing gate, hook large hook around gate stick, 
bring other end toward gate and hook one of the small 
hooks to top wire. 




3/16" x 2' 
strap-iron 



Machine bolt 
through post 



Wire gate fastener. 



60 



2 strands of no. 9 gauge wire 
twisted together and stapled 
to both sides of post 



Chain 



Telephone staples 




Short chain with pry bar 
to help open and close tight 
gates. Chain held to post 
with staples. 



WOODEN SWINGING GATES: 



3/4" x 16" bolt & washer 



Wire wrapping 

D 




10' 6' 



Iron hook or wire bail 



f 

42" 



This may be a rock with hole drilled, 

or an old wagon wheel hub, or a block 

of wood, or a concrete block with 

piece of 1" pipe •— ' 



SIDE VIEW 



1 :j. 






ii 


/fftg] 


:; 




A 


1 '.■■]' 






ii 



TOP VIEW 



2" 



-1 r w^ 



" P in-| ^ 



/ 



3 /4" iron 



4" 



STIRRUP FOR 
GATE POST 



If stirrup is not used, 
bore a 11/16" hole 
and drive in a %" pin 
in hole 



61 



16" drift pin 



I 



42" 



10' 0" 




Ready-made metal gates may 
be used where more economical 



Frame and bracing for gate opening on 
— *■ frequently used roads where long posts 

are available 



All gate material to be 
peeled and seasoned 




Set pin at least 2" into 
hole in stone. Fill hole 
with grease before setting gate 



Iron pin set 4" into 
post. Min. dia.: V*" 

I 4" pole hanger brace, one 

Large stone on each side of fence. 

or wheel hub Approx. length: 18' 




T3«r" 



TOP VIEW 



62 



Standard 3V 2 " OD galvanized 
schedule 40 steel pipe 



8"(min) 



2 strands no. 9 
guy wire with 
turnbuckle 



If gate is heavy, extra 
brace wires may be needed 



— 6" (min) 




See gate post anchor detail 



12" 12" 




Wooden swinging gate. 



W x 10" 
hook bolt 



Concrete 



2 strands no. 9 galv. 
guy wire to gate post 




18" dia.--f> ~ 

GATE POST ANCHOR 



Standard 3V2" OD galv. 
schedule 40 steel pipe 




Eye 3 3 /4" ID 
8" post 



Washers 
GATE HINGE 



6" post 
Washer 



5/8" bolt & nut 



I 



f 

■ 

: 




t 

ii 


i 

T 


i 


p 


! 
6 

, T 


v 


■:■;;» ■- 


w& 


M 


M 



12" 12' 



SECTION A-A 



63 



TRIGGER GATE: 



Triggers adjust by moving 
wires on overhead brace bar 



6" to 10" posts 




Note: Triggers should be 
fairly limber to 
prevent breakage 



Poles wired 
to post 



Wire to swing 
trigger from brace 




View of trigger 



64 



EXAMPLES OF 16-FOOT WOODEN GATES: 



> 



42' 



16'- 



1V4" x 5" wrought steel strip 

hinges bolted to gate with 

2 3/8" x 3 1/2" galvanized bolts 






No. 9 twisted guy 
to deadman 



Brace i , i Fence anchored independently 
|_^j to gate is better construction 

Brace 



Catch 





TOP VIEW 
Bottom rail 



3" block BOTTOM HINGE DETAIL 
(looking up) 



10" post set 
30" deep 



65 



I— I1WIHIHIH IIIMMH 



Metal Swinging Gates 



TUBULAR STEEL GATES 



Gate hinge detail 




Staple to 
brace bar 




-. * • 



Metal swinging gate. 



66 



PIPE FRAME GATES: 




Notes: *: hold these dimensions when setting posts 
Welded construction 
Exposed surface of concrete shall be crowned to shed water 




Variable 



Flat bar stiffener 
(weld to frame) 



67 



ALUMINUM GATES: 




Riveted construction 



Aluminum gates are commercially available and 
may be purchased in a variety of lengths 




68 



SPRING-LOADED FIBERGLASS ROD 
DRIVE-THROUGH GATE: 



■HMMBMimMmMI^Mi^M^^^^^M^BHiffi _ :h". -.'. 



i.t 1 ^*- •:''« :^".:> ' r -j >;v > '■ ""''i,; 




Spring-loaded fiberglass rod drive-through gate. 



Drive-through gate detail. 






The swing-back fence is designed as a large gate. 
Large segments of a fence can be swung out of 
the way for wildlife movement. 



Hook here 



This section is swung 
back behind permanent 
fence section 




Hook here 



This section is swung 
in front of permanent 
fence section 



69 



Cattleguards 

Cattleguards axe similar to gates in that they both 
allow access to either side of a fence. There are 
differences however. A cattleguard does not have 
to be opened or closed, but does effectively 
prohibit livestock from crossing a fence line. 
Cattleguards are more expensive to build or buy 
than gates; they usually require digging to install; 
and they require frequent cleaning. And, to allow 
livestock to pass, a gate should be installed adjacent 
to a cattleguard. This additional expense should be 
weighed against the convenience of the cattle- 
guard. 

Examples of appropriate designs are illustrated : 



CONCRETE FOUNDATION 



DETAIL A 



2" x 2" x W angle 
(galv. after fab.) 

' x 5" welded 
stud (24" C-C) 

2 No. 4x8' 11" 
No. 4 stirrup 

1*4" 




Concrete foundation cattleguard. 




m 

Him 

1 . ■■ 
f 




Concrete foundation cattleguard (detail). 



Set at road grade 



No. 4 ties (typ) 
'%®z> 



i i 



£3 

36 

1 



7&m7 



14 



L 



Subgrade 



^j - 5 No. 4 cont. ea. 
footing, typ. 



11" 

No. 4 stirrups 



SECTION AT ROAD CENTER LINE 



Cattleguard width 
MATERIALS Concrete 
REQUIRED No 4 re i n f rcing steel 

2" x 2" x Vi" steel angle 



14' 

3.3 e.y. 
324 1. f. 
28 1. f. 



16' 

3.7 c. y. 
3551. f. 
32 1. f. 



24' 

5.4 c. y. 
486 1. f. 
48 1. f. 



28' 

6.3 c. y. 
547 1. f. 
56 1. f. 



32' 

7.1 c. y. 
618 1.1 
64 1. f. 



70 



TIMBER FOUNDATION 



Subgrade 
Finished grade 



Lag screw anchor _--^" X 
8" x 8" (treated) ^ 




Cattle guard 



8" x 8" (treated) 



Set at road grade 



41 






8" x 8" (treated) 



SEC HON AT ROAD CENTER LINE 
(with grid and wings in place) 

Notes: Cattleguard anchor angles with %" x 6" lag screws with standard 
washer to be furnished with each single grid 

On earth-surfaced roads, set top of cattleguard 8" above subgrade 
unless plans or stakes indicated another elevation. Taper fill back 
from cattleguard approximately 50 feet in both directions. 



TEMPORARY CATTLEGUARD 

Temporary cattleguards are cheap and effective 
where vehicular traffice is heavy for short periods 
such as during timber sales. 




Steel fence posts 



2" x 4" x V L 



Materials: 

4- 2" x 4" x V lumber 

6- W x 4" machine bolts 

12-5/16" washers 

44-16d nails 

150' 1V&" cottonjacket firehose (yellow if available) 

(cut into 14' lengths) 
2~innertubes (cut into 4" bands) 
4—5' steel fence posts 
30' baling wire (to close in ends) 
4— 1VS" sections of split firehose (to mount on 

steel post to keep post from cutting rubberbands 

when guard is mounted) 



Gate post 



3* 



BBSS 



~1K&~ 



...<fti» 



~^SCTT 



J* 



raa~ 



Nails to keep bands on 
TOP VIEW 



Steel fence post 



p, W> 



bolts 



(h 



Firehose 
+iL 4" rubber bands 



Gate post 




J^_ 



2" x 4" 



4" rubber band 

Steel fence post 



SIDE VIEW 

Temporary firehose cattleguard 



11 



STEEL FOUNDATION 




Typical steel foundation cattleguard under construction. 













*•»- \r i 



,- v , ' ■ .►*r .' 



Steel foundation cattleguard. 



72 



A well-constructed cattleguard of railroad iron 
should be set in a concrete foundation. Only the 
inner edge of the cattleguard lies on the boundary 
line to allow removal for cleaning. Note that 
drainage is easily provided that does not conflict 
with the fence line. 

If you construct guards in heavy traffic, you must 
consult an engineer. 

Pass structures are small cattleguards that prevent 
livestock movement but allow antelope a break in 
the fence line. For cattle, sheep, and antelope a 
6-foot by 8-foot pass is recommended. Corner 
location of these passes is recommended. 



ANTELOPE PASS 



Drill %" hole for 
5/8" anchor pin 



8"x8"xK. Plat 




Posts to stop vehicular traffic 
TOP VIEW 



Posts to stop vehicular traffic 




SIDE VIEW 





j-^fr^ 


<S 




i- 




/*mVs 






J\ 






v'i 








v^ 


> 




2fl6|/3 






\ 






t 


\ 




1 


CvJ 


V 




s/ ' 








L_ 












.3 i/e; 









8"x8V/4" Plate 



PLAN 



L I W x 1 1/2? 



~^w 



/-8"x8"x 1/4" Plate 



<-LS 1/2" x 3 1/2' 



^17" 



ELEVATION 
DETAIL A 



Z.3 l /Z"x3 l /2' 



■L 1 1/2" x I l /2" 




DETAIL B 



i.\Vz"*iV$ 



£3 1/2" x 3 1/2- 




"•1/2" Sq. hd. mach. 
i^> bolt w/nut 8 washer 



DETAIL C 



-3/8"0 



DETAIL D 



73 



People Access 

Fences control livestock, wildlife, and people. 
Controlling people effectively requires planned 
access. Gates are, of course, the most common 
access, but stiles, ladders and walk-throughs 
exclude livestock and wildlife while allowing 
people to move safely from one side of a fence to 
the other. These structures must be strong and 
durable. They must be constructed with safety as 
a major consideration. Treated lumber will prolong 
the life of the structure. Controlling where people 
cross a fence will save a great deal in maintenance 
and replacement costs. 



h- 24" -» 

2"x4" 
i 



1 



I 



I =sJm . 



£ 



12" 



11" 



10' 



Standard fence post 





Fence stile. 



Secured with 
drift pins 




TOP VIEW 




Set on rocks 



Fence stile. 



Walk-through gate. 

(Excludes livestock & wildlife.) 



74 







Typical steel access gate. 



Fence stile. 



Materials 

Recommended post and brace sizes are : 



Wood Posts and Brace Members 



Steel Posts and Brace Members 







Minimum 


Member 


Top Diameter 


Length 




Square Inches 


Feet 


Corner post 


6 


8 


End post 


5 


8 


Gate post 


5 or 6 


8 


First corner brace post 5 


8 


Other brace post 


4 


8 


Horizontal brace 


member 4 


8 


Diagonal brace member 4 


10 





Pipe 


Angle Minimum 


Member 


Diameter 


Measure 


Length 




Inches 


Inches 


Fee* 


Corner post 


2Vi 


2Vi x VA x l A 


8 


End post 


2Vi 


2V% x 2'/ 2 x Va 


8 


Gate post 


2Vi 


2'/ 2 x 2VS x Va 


8 


First brace post 


2V6 


2V2 x 2V2 x V4 


8 


Other brace post 


2V4 


2'/ 2 x 2% x % 


8 


Horizontal brace member 2 


2'/2 X VA X Va 


8 


Diagonal brace men 


iber 2 


2V 2 x VA x ] /4 


10 



75 



Posts, rails, and other wood members contacting 
the ground should be treated with a preservative. 
Wood can be preserved by controlling the moisture 
content, using wood naturally resistent to the 
pests, or by chemicals. Mechanical barriers are 
sometimes used, but are usually ineffective. This 
handbook discusses chemical preservatives. 

Sap wood and soft wood accept wood preservatives 
much better than heart wood or hard woods do. If 
possible, choose sap wood from a soft wood 
species for your wood components. 

Wood preservatives fall into three catagories: 
creasote and creasote solutions, oil-based preserva- 
tives, and water-based preservatives. The following 
table shows the advantages and disadvantages of 
the three general types of preservatives. 



Advantages and Disadvantages of Preservatives 



Preservative Type 



Creasote and 
Creasote Solutions 



Water-based 



Oil-based 



Advantages 



Toxic to wood-destroying 
fungi, insects, and some 
marine borers; low 
volatility ; insoluable in 
water; easy to handle and 
apply. 

No hazard from fire or 
explosion; the surface is 
left clean, paintable, and 
free of objectionable 
odors; safe for interior 
use and treatment of 
playground equipment; 
leach resistent. 

Toxic to fungi, insects, 
and mold; can be 
dissolved in oils having 
a wide range of viscosity, 
vapor pressure, and 
color; low solubility; 
can be glued, depending- 
on the dilutant or 
carrier; easy to handle 
and use. 



Disadvantages 



Dark color; strong odor; oily, 
unpaintable surface, tendency to 
bleed or exude from the wood 
surface; should not be used in 
homes or other living areas 
because of toxic fumes. 

Unless re-dried after treatment, 
the wood is subject to warping 
and cracking; does not protect 
wood from excessive weathering. 



Can leave an oily, unpaintable 
surface, depending on the 
carrier; some applications 
provide less physical protection 
to wood than creosote; should 
not be used in homes or other 
living areas because of toxic 
fumes; it is toxic and irritating 
to plants, animals, and humans. 



76 



There are two basic methods of applying wood 
preservative. 

Pressure treating is the most common practice 
for commercial companies treating wood. 
Pressure treating offers the following advantages: 
a deeper and more uniform penetration ; better 
control over retention; wood can be precondi- 
tioned in the chamber; and it can comply with 
safety code regulations and engineered speci- 
fications. 

However, once a treated member has been cut, 
insects and decay can enter through the non- 
protected area of the cut. For this reason, it is 
best to precut the members before treating. 

Non-pressurized treatment is a cold soaking 
technique that can be used to treat wood members. 
When treated, wood should be peeled, seasoned, 
and unglazed. If wood is glazed, pound it with an 
incising hammer to allow the preservative to 
penetrate. Soak the poles until the preservative has 
evenly penetrated 14-inch into the wood. This may 
take from several hours to several days. Soak a 
sample pole and inspect cuttings at regular intervals 
to establish the time needed to treat the poles. A 
recipe for preservative is : 

1 to VA cups boiled linseed oil 

1 ounce melted paraffin wax (Melt over a double 
burner only; do not melt over direct flame) 

19 ounces copper-8-quinolinoate 

Add enough solvent (mineral spirits, paint 
thinner, or turpentine) to make 1 gallon 

A typical corral fence would require 25 to 30 
gallons of preservative. Fill a 5 5 -gallon barrel half 
full with preservative. Load posts or other wood to 
be treated into the barrel. If the preservative does 
not then fill the barrel, add solution to the top. 

There are three major wood preservatives classified 
by the Environmental Protection Agency: 
creosote, inorganic arsenicals, and pentachloro- 
phenol. Restricted use was based on toxicity due 
to exposure over a long period of time. 



Exposure can come through handling and mixing 
the chemicals, entering pressure-treating cylinders, 
working around spraying or dipping operations, 
handling freshly treated wood, cleaning or servicing 
equipment, or disposing of waste preservatives. 
Reducing the exposure received reduces the level 
or risk of toxicity. Exposure can be reduced by 
following the guidelines listed below: 

1. Don't eat, drink, or use tobacco products in 
the work area. 

2. Wash hands often. 

3. Remove gloves to handle paper work, phones, 
or equipment that other people may touch. 

4. Eye protection, long-sleeved shirts, rubber 
gloves, long pants, respirators, and rubber or 
heavy boots should be worn when working with 
a preservative on freshly treated wood. 

5. Wash clothes separately. 

A single or short-term exposure of the three 
restricted preservatives can cause the following 
sypmtoms: 

Creosote : 

Can cause skin irritation; vapors and fumes are 
irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract; 
prolonged and repeated exposure may lead to 
dermatitis. 

Pentachlorophenol : 

Irritating to eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. 

Ingestion of penta solutions, inhalation of 
concentrated vapors, or excessive skin contact 
may lead to fever, headache, weakness, dizziness, 
nausea, and profuse sweating. In extreme cases, 
coordination loss and convulsion may occur. High 
levels of exposure can be fatal. 

Prolonged exposure can lead to an acne-like skin 
condition or other skin disorders, and may cause 
damage to the liver, kidneys, or nervous system. 



77 



Inorganic arsenicals : 

Exposure to high concentrations of arsenical 
compounds can cause nausea, headache, diarrhea 
and abdominal pain (if material was swallowed); 
extreme symptoms can progress to dizziness, 
muscle spasms, delirium, and convulsion. 

Prolonged exposure can produce chronic, 
persistent symptoms of headache, abdominal 
distress, salivation, low-grade fever, and upper 
respiratory irritation. 

Long term effects can include liver damage, loss 
of hair and fingernails, anemia and skin disorders. 



In case of exposure, follow these procedures: 

If skin has been exposed, first remove 
contaminated clothing. Immediately wash the 
affected areas with mild soap and water. Don't 
irritate the skin with vigorous scrubbing. Later, if 
you notice inflammed skin, redness, or itching in 
the affected area, consult a doctor. 

In cases of eye contact, immediately flush the 
eyes with running water. Lift the upper and lower 
eyelids for complete irrigation and continue for 
fifteen minutes, then see a doctor. 

If accidental inhalation has occurred, move the 
victim to fresh air and apply artificial respiration as 
needed. Get medical help immediately. 

If chemical preservative has been swallowed, call 
medical help immediately : 



*If creosote or penta was swallowed, first give 
one or two glasses of water, induce vomiting, then 
administer two tablespoons of 'USP Drug Grade' 
activated charcoal in water. 

*If an arsenical chemical has been swallowed, 
drink large quantities of water, or milk if avail- 
able. Get professional medical help immediately. 

Never attempt to give anything by mouth to an 
unconscious person. 

Never induce vomiting in an unconscious person. 

The product label and consumer data sheets 
supplied by the chemical companies also provide 
emergency treatment recommendations. 



Use extreme care when using wood preservatives or 
wood treated with a preservative. When working 
with wood treated with one of the restricted 
preservatives, consult the Environmental 
Protection Agency or your County Extension 
Agent. 



Brace Wire— Used to put tension on the brace in 
the opposite direction of the fence line tension. 
A standard brace wire is soft No. 9 gauge wire 
wrapped around the posts two times or it may 
be two strands of twisted No. 12% gauge wire 
wrapped around the posts once. A single strand 
of 12V2 gauge high tensile wire wrapped twice 
around the posts is equal to the twisted wire. 



Life expectancy of wire depends on the kind and 
thickness of the protective coating. The most 
common coating is zinc. Galvanized or zinc-coated 
wire is measured by the amount of zinc per-square- 
meter or square-foot. Fence manufacturers and the 
American Society for Testing Materials have 
established classes of zinc coating— Class 1 has the 
lightest coating and Class 3 the heaviest. Life 
expectancy of Classes 1 and 3 coatings to protect 
wire from rusting under various climatic conditions 
are shown in the following table. 

Copper is much more effective than zinc in 
resisting rust. However, once the copper coating 
is nicked enough to expose the steel wire, 
corrosion occurs at a faster rate than on galvanized 
wire. Aluminum coating has at least 3 to 5 times 
greater corrosion resistance than zinc coating. 
Aluminum coating also resists heat up to 1,650° F. 
It is therefore more suited for areas where burning 
under fences is common. Some manufacturers 
add copper to steel, but tests by the American 
Society for Testing Materials show no additional 
value in this process. Most manufacturers use a 
medium-hard steel in their fencing wire to allow 
spring action through tension curves. These tension 
curves are partially straightened when the fence 
is stretched. During summer heat they take up 
slack as the fence lengthens and they allow the 
fence to contract in winter. Barbed wire does not 
have the advantage of tension curves, so a wire 
stretched on a hot summer day may break or pull 
a brace assembly out of position during the winter. 
Small wire must be made of harder steel to provide 
adequate pulling strength . A fencing wire made of 
soft steel will not have adequate strength to hold 
up to the tension applied when the wire is 
stretched. 



78 



Galvanized Wire Rust Expectancy 



Climatic Condition 



Wire Size 


1 


Dry 
Class 


3 


9 


15 




30 


11 


11 




30 


12'/ 2 


11 




30 


14V 2 


7 




23 



Humid 

Class 

1 3 

-Years till rust appears 

8 13 

6 13 

6 13 

5 10 



Nails and Staples— Galvanized 40d common nails 
are sometimes used to hold the compression 
member in place. The most common galvanized 
staple is lVfc-inches long. In extremely hard wood, a 
3/4-inch long galvanized staple may be preferred. 

Rod or Stick— Any strong rod-resistant material 
can serve as a twist stick to set the tension of the 
brace wire. Such materials are a 3/8-inch bridge 
spike, a piece of steel rod, a treated piece of wood 
around VA x 2-inch x 2-foot in size. Be sure 
these twist sticks are placed so they will not 
unwind. 

Steel Dowel Pins— Used in place of notching the 
brace posts to hold the compression members. 
Ideally, a 3/8-inch galvanized carbon steel rod 
4 to 10 inches long is preferred. 

Compression Sleeves— Splice brace wires and fence 
wires together and eliminate the need to tie the 
wire off. 

Lightning Protection- -Steel posts give some fences 
the lightning protection they need. Fence posts of 
other materials need lightning protection added at 
every brace and on both sides of a gate. A 5/8-inch 
galvanized steel rod 6 feet long is commonly used 
as the ground rod and a galvanized screw clamp 
connects the fence ground wire to the rod. 



Coastal & Industrial 
Class 
1 



3 6 

2 6 

2 6 

VA 4% 



Tools 

The following tools are needed to construct 
braces and corners: 

Post hole digger 

Tamping tool 

Saw— carpenter or 
chain 

Chisel, wood— 1 -inch 
or larger 

Brace and bits- 
various bit 
sizes and 
expansion bit 

Rule— 12-foot in a 
metal case 

Crayon marker 

Crimper 

Plumb bob 

Post driver 

Axe— single or double 

File— flat and /or chain 

Hammer— claw and 
4-pound 

Carpenter's level 

Carpenter's square 

Nail apron 

Ball of cord or twine 



79 



Various kinds of equipment are available for 
placing posts: 

Two-handled hand digger— Works well in areas 
where there is little rock. 

Shovel and bar— Best in rocky ground. 

Tractor-mounted auger—Some are rigidly 
mounted and some free swinging to allow you to 
drill straight regardless of slope. Tractor-mounted 
augers are not well adapted to steep or rocky 
ground. 

Portable self-contained power augers- Commer- 
cially available. 

Chain saw augers— Have power take-off and 
attachments. They work well in spring and early 
summer on ground that is not too rocky or hard. 

Carpenter's level— -Helps set brace posts ver- 
tically. 

Carpenter's rule— Measures post, sets depths, 
positions compression members, and measures 
wire spacing. 

Carpenter's square— Aligns the notch to be 
chiseled out of the brace posts. 

Crayon marker—Marks post depth, notches, 
position of compression members, and positions of 
wire. 

Nail apron— Holds nails and staples. 

Crimper— Ties off wire. 

Ball of cord or twine— -Measures the length of 
brace wire for the brace and marks the straight 
line between braces. 

Plumb bob— To set the 1- and 2-inch lean on 
anchor and/or brace posts. 

Post drivers— Hand-operated post drivers may be 
purchased or built. The heavier two-person drivers 
are best for rocky ground. 

Mechanical post drivers— Can be mounted on 
tractors, trailers, or skids. They need a crew of 
two or three to operate. 



POST HOLE DIGGER 




TWINE 



GASOLINE 
POWERED 
AUGER 



CARPENTER'S LEVEL 







I 1U1I ■U4. J .W. I ]HJ!j»,» l . 
i ~ >'"?' ni'ir 




[] 



POST DRIVER 



K CARPENTER'S SQUARES 




FENCING PLIERS 



PLUMB BOBS 




80 



Tamping tools— The most common tool is a 
digging bar with a round tamping head on the 
other end or handle end. A 1-inch galvanized pipe 
about 6 or 7 feet long with a cap or short tee-joint 
works well. In sandy or loam soil a fire rake or 
shovel handle with the end cut off square makes a 
good tool. In other types of soil you need to put 
a 2-foot length of pipe with a cap on one end on 
the wooden handle to give the tamping tools 
enough weight. Wooden handles are less tiring to 
workers than metal handles. 

Axes— Single- or double-bit axes shape 
compression members to fit notches in brace posts. 

Saws— Carpenter's or chain saws shape 
compression members to fit notches on brace posts 
and cut ends off posts. 

Files— Sharpen axes or chain saws. 

Chisels— Shape notch in brace posts. 

Hammers— Claw and 4-pound hammers are used 
in chiseling notch in brace posts, driving in steel 
dowels, setting nails, and staples. 

Brace and bits— -Makes holes for steel dowels. 



DIGGING BAR 



" '•- 



^~i^f^ 




TAMPING TOOL 



-H 



SINGLE BIT AX 




DOUBLE BIT AXE 




SAW 




CHISELS 



BRACE AND BIT 



CLAW HAMMER 4-POUND HAMMER 





PORTABLE DRILL 



81 




*> .. " 




82 



cFeqce Options 



Three major fencing options are presented in this 
handbook-Telectric, wire, and wood. There are a 
multitude of choices within those major cate- 
gories. You may, for example, choose smooth, 
barbed, or woven wire or choose between tem- 
porary or permanent fencing. To help you make 
your decisions, we have described the advantages 
and disadvantages of the most common fences, and 
have included cost comparisons, construction 
techniques, tools and materials. 

Barbed wire is the most common fence built. A 
conventional four-strand barbed wire fence 
provides a strong physical deterrent, but is mod- 
erately costly to build and maintain. Smooth 
high tensile wire reduces injuries to livestock 
caused by barbed wire and is a good alternative 
for interior fences. It has a lower construction and 
maintenance cost than conventional barbed wire. 
Permanent electric fencing is rapidly replacing 
both barbed wire and high tensile wire fencing. 
Permanent electric fencing is rapidly replacing 
both barbed wire and high tensile wire fencing. 
Permanent electric fencing is more a psycho- 
logical barrier rather than a physical barrier and 
therefore has lower labor and material costs. It 
is relatively easy to install and has a long ser- 
vice life. Wood fences are more expensive to 
construct. They are more visible than most 
other fences; however, they are often the most 
esthetically pleasing. 




IE V ■ 








X 



\ 




Examples of fences. 



ELECTRIC 



83 



Electric Fences 

Electric fences have been viewed as temporary 
structures, but with recent innovations they are 
now permanent. High tensile electric fencing is 
inexpensive; easy to construct; has less animal 
damage; is less restrictive to wildlife movement; 
requires less maintenance; and, if properly con- 
structed, has a longer life span than conventional 
fences. To be effective, electricity must be con- 
stant. The fence must be frequently inspected and 
animals must be trained to respect it. 

The old standard U.S. manufactured energizers 
could electrify up to 6 miles of wire that had a 
useful life of up to 4 years. New Zealand energizers 
can effectively electrify over 75 miles of wire with 
a useful life of 10 to 15 years. 

An electric fence is a wire that carries intermittent 
electrical charges that shock when the wire is 
touched. To be effective, a shock of at least 
1,000 volts must be delivered to cattle, 2,000 volts 
to sheep, and 2,500 to 3,000 volts to deer, dogs, 
and coyotes. Electric fences are more of a 
psychological barrier than a physical barrier and 
may not need as much material as standard fences. 
This may result in a 25 to 50 percent saving in 
labor and material costs. 



The effectiveness of the electric fence depends 
on six factors: 

1. the power of the energizer 

2. the wire carrying the current 

3. the insulators carrying the charged wire 

4. the conductive nature of the ground 

5. the earth peg or earth -re turn wire 

6. the type of animal being controlled 

A definition of electrical terms is included for 
your convenience. 



Electricity from either the main lines or a storage 
battery (A) is forced by an electric pump or 
energizer (B) along the wire from C to D. In an 
electric system, a ground-to-earth or ground- 
return wire back to the energizer must be provided 
to complete the circuit or the current will not 
flow. The rate of flow is measured in amperes 
per second and the pressure in volts. The total 
power imput and output of the energizer is 
expressed in watts (amps times volts). 



A 

Storage 
battery 














B 

Electric 
pump 




+ 




c I " 






D 


Flow 






— 




I — 1 + 





afc, 



.-:_£ 




^ ,, y ^r_ . . ^%0 r< ... , , „^., - . . ~^tPf::.. ., , ^ ^1^: 



Moist soil or ground-return wire on fence 



84 



iMBMiimmmiiL'i. 



Electrical Terms 



Resistor: 



Conductor: 



Insulator: 



Leaks: 



Shorts: 



Volts: 



Amps: 



An electrical component which, due to Ohms: 

its material and or shape, offers 

resistance or restriction to the flow of 

electricity. The degree of restriction 

is measured in electrical units called 

ohms. The amount of resistance that 

will limit the flow to 1 amp when a 

pressure of 1 volt is applied = 1 ohm. 

Volts/amps = ohms. 

A substance that allows electrons to Coulombs: 

flow freely. The less resistance, the 

better the conductor. The unit of 

conductance is called Mho (ohm 

spelled backwards), this unit is the 

exact reciprocal of the ohm. 

Amps/volts = Mhos. Watts: 

A substance that will not allow any 
electron flow and is used to stop 
electricity from leaking. Most 
insulating materials have a critical 
pressure for a given thickness, above 
which the material suddenly 
punctures. 

Refers to low conductance (high 

resistance) paths from the fenceline 

back to the energizer earth terminal, 

caused by: Cracked insulators, foliage 

entangled in the live wire, a length of 

live wire on the ground, animals Joules: 

touching the live wire. 

Refers to a high conductance (low 
resistance) path between the live wire 
and either a dead wire or an earth 
return wire. Commonly known as a 
wire-to-wire short. Such a condition 
constitutes the largest threat to the 
reliability and effectiveness of an 
electric fence line. 

Energy: 
Units of electrical pressure, just as 
lb/square-inch are units of physical 
pressure. One volt is the force 
necessary to cause a current of 1 amp 
to flow through a resistance of 1 ohm, 
i.e. ohms x amps - volts. 

Units of electrical rate of flow, just as Capacitor: 

gallons per hour are units of rate of 

physical flow. One amp is a flow rate 

of 6,280,000,000,000,000,000, 

i.e. 6.28 x 10 1 8 electrons per second. 

One amp is the rate of electron flow 

that results when a pressure of 1 volt 

is applied across a resistance of 1 ohm, 

i.e. volts/ohms - amps. 



Units of electrical resistance or re- 
striction to the flow of electrons, 
just as a long, thin pipe causes physical 
resistance or friction to the flow of 
water through it. One ohm is the 
amount of resistance that will limit 
the flow rate to 1 amp when a pressure 
of 1 volt is applied, 
i.e. volts/amps - ohms. 

Units of electrical quantity, just as 
1 gallon is a specific quantity. One 
coulomb is 6.28 x 10 1 8 electrons, 
i.e. a flow rate of 1 amp for 1 second. 
Amps x seconds - coulombs. 

Units of electrical rate of doing work, 
i.e. power, just as horsepower is a 
physical rate of doing work. One 
horsepower can lift 1 lb vertically at 
the rate of 550 feet per second, or 
heat 1 lb of water at the rate of 
0.7 degrees fahrenheit (0.39°C) per 
second. 746 watts = 1 horsepower, and 
can therefore lift 1 lb at the rate of 
550 feet per second, or heat 1 lb of 
water at the rate of 0.7 degrees 
fahrenheit per seond. A flow rate of 
1 amp at a pressure of 1 volt produces 
watt, i.e. amps x volts = watts. 

Units of electrical energy, just as 
550 foot lbs (1 horsepower for 1 
second) is a specific amount of 
physical energy, 

i.e., 746 joules = 550 foot lbs. One 
joule is the amount of energy required 
to do approximately 0.74 foot lbs of 
work. One joule is the energy required 
to produce 1 watt for 1 second, 
i.e. watts x second - joules. 

The capacity or ability to complete a 

particular amount of work (see joules). 

It is largely the quantity of joules 

released by an energizer during each 

pulse, which determines its effective 

power. 

3,600,000 joules - 1 kilowatt -Hour. 

An electrical component capable of 
storing and releasing electrical energy, 
and approximating a reservoir, the 
volume of which is stated in electrical 
units called Farads (micro farads). 
If 1 amp flows into a capacitor for 
1 second and this causes a rise in 
pressure of 1 volt, then the volume of 
the capacitor = 1 Farad. 
Amps x seconds/volts rise » farads. 



85 



If the mainline power source is over 2 miles from 
the fence, a battery-powered energizer should be 
used. Most battery-powered energizers can be 
hung from one of the upper wires on the fence 
with a wing nut, or fastened to a fence post with 
rust-proof screws. Energizers should be located 
where they cannot be damaged by livestock or 
machines, and they should be located in an en- 
closure to prevent theft or vandalism. If possible, 
a mainline plug-in energizer should be installed 
inside a building to protect it and permit frequent 
inspection. Plug-in energizers can also be installed 
outdoors on a fence post or a separate post, but 
never on a power pole. 



Installed indoors, the power input should be from 
a properly fused and grounded electrical outlet 
designed to receive a thee-pronged plug for 110 
volt or a three-pronged plug for 220 volt operation. 
For indoor installations, the high-voltage feedwires 
from the energizer to the outside of the building 
can be No. 12 two-wire double-insulated copper 
electrical cable attached to two strands of 
galvanized high tensile wire strung overhead or 
buried underground. In either case, the ends of the 
copper wires should be "tinned" before attaching 
them to the galvanized wires and the underground 
wires should be protected with insultube and 
x /2-inch plastic pipe. A separate ground wire should 
be connected from the ground terminal on the 
energizer to a ground rod driven just outside of the 
building. 



Energizer 
mounted on 
inside wall -^ 



Insulated in-line 
wire strainers 




Fence wire 
at 15" spacing 



Insulated cable 
from energizer to 
overhead wires 

18' to 20' 
poles "S. 



Ground wire 



-^- 



130' pole spacing 
(up to 2 miles) 




Wrap around 
insulator 



-^ 



Insulated cable 
to transfer live 
wire to fence 



Alternate poles 
are grounded 
for lightning 
protection 



=**£- 



_*lte 



Ground rod 



Four 6' x %" galvanized 
ground rods at 6' spacing- 



Overhead transmission from energizer to fence. 



Energizer mounted 
on inside wall 




Ground rod Feedwires covered with insultube and Vk" plastic 

pipe buried 12" to 24" underground for up to 360' 

Underground transmission from energizer to fence. 



86 



If carrying the power overhead or underground to 
the fence to be electrified is impractical, it is 
possible to simply string a live wire on 24-inch 
nonconductive stays bolted to the tops of the 
existing fence posts and use one of the wires on 
the fence for a ground-return wire. 



24" non-conductive stays 
bolted to fence posts 



Insulated in-line 
wire strainer 



10' post (both ends) 
driven 4' in ground 




Four 6' x %" galvanized 
ground rods at 6' spacing 



Transmission using existing fence. 



Components 

Energizers 

In the mid 1960's, new energizers were developed 
in New Zealand. These units, and others based on 
them, are of solid-state construction and release 
high voltage electrical charges. Their useful life is 
at least 15 years. These chargers can release 5,000 
volts under no-load conditions and can effectively 
charge between 30 and 75 miles of fence, 
depending on the type of energizer and the number 
of wires charged. For example, a very powerful 
mainline-operated energizer can supply 60 miles of 
a single-strand fence, but can charge only 20 miles 
of a fence containing three hot wires (20 miles x 
3 strands = 60 miles of charged line). Charges are 
released at a rate of 35 to 65 per minute, 
approximately 3/10,000 of a second in duration, 
and are less than 300 mAmps in intensity. 

Many energizers will give a 5,000 volt reading with 
a voltmeter, but this is no indication of their 
ability to deliver a charge when subjected to 
varying loads caused by such things as dry or wet 
vegetation. Specifications detailing the energy 
(joules) and force (volts) produced by energizers 
under light to extreme resistances (ohms) are 
available from most energizer manufacturers and 
suppliers. The greater the joule and voltage output 
at a given resistance, the longer stretch of fence it 
will power and the greater its ability to power 
through vegetation. 



Perhaps the most important part of high tensile 
electric fencing is the selection of the energizer. 
A permanent high tensile electric fence must be 
powered by energizers meeting the following 
specifications : 



1. High -impact self -insulating plastic 
resistant to weather and corrosion. 



cases 



2. Indicator lights that show the energizer and 
the fence are functioning properly. 

3. Snap -in service modules for fast field repair. 

4. Safety pace fuse to prevent over-pulsing. 

5. Choice of output— on all 110 and 220 volt 
units, half power and full power output terminals 
should be available. On 12-volt models a variable 
speed switch is necessary to increase battery life. 

6. Automatic output control to add power as 
needed. 

7. Solid-state circuitry with 5,000 to 6,000 volts 
peak output. 



87 



Solid-state energizers have advantages when 
compared to standard U.S. manufactured 
energizers : 

1. A stronger pulse that lasts a shorter period 
of time. 

2. Less internal resistance. 

3. Greater capacity to drive a charge through 
vegetation or other leakage sources. 

4. Substantially less tendency to arc, which 
reduces fire danger. 

5. Longer life because of solid-state design. 

6. Removable circuit boards that can be easily 
replaced. 

New Zealand energizers may be operated by 
mainline power or by wet or dry cell batteries. 
Solar and wind powered energizers have been 
developed. Mainline-operated units eliminate 
maintaining and replacing batteries and they 
provide a more consistent and cheaper supply of 
power. Most models will consume $1 or less of 
kilowatt-hours per month when operated 24 hours 
a day. Since transmission wires must be strung to 
the fence, these units should be located within 
2 miles of a power source. As a result, mainline 
energizers are used primarily for permanent electric 
fences in nonintensive livestock operations. 
Mainline units may be connected to either 110 or 
220 volt power sources. 

Wet cell batteries are rechargable and power 
either 12-, 24-, or 32-volt energizers. The 24- or 
32-volt units are capable of a similar voltage 
output as mainline units, but batteries must be 
continually recharged by a generating plant. 
Twelve-volt units are capable of one-quarter to 
one-half the voltage output of mainline units and 
can power between 5 and 25 miles of fence wire. 
Manufacturers' claims of battery life are based on 
ideal conditions seldom duplicated in the field. 
Some manufacturers suggest that conventional 
12-volt automobile or tractor batteries can power 
their energizers. Experience has shown that this 
is not feasible. 

Dry cell energizers are more expensive in the long 
run and do not electrify as much fence (up to 
2 miles) as wet cell batteries. Dry cell batteries 
are non-rechargable and generally last from 1 to 6 
months. They may be used for temporary summer 
grazing and then discarded. 



Solar-powered energizers are particularly suited to 
remote, little visited areas. Solar panels are usually 
placed on a mounting unit and produce enough 
wattage (up to 32 watts) to charge 12-volt 
batteries. Depending on the storage device 
employed, between 5 and 14 days of energy can be 
stored for later use on nights and cloudy days. 
Models can supply between 2 and 30 miles of fence 
material and are reported to have an average life 
expectancy of 8 to 10 years. They may be used 
for either temporary or permanent fences. These 
energizers eliminate running long lead-outs from a 
mainline and require little maintenance other than 
adding water to the batteries once or twice a year. 

Wind-chargers may also charge 12-volt batteries. 
Such a charger was effective for 3 years in Aus- 
tralia and charged 7 to 9 miles of fence. Wind 
chargers are more costly than solar panels and have 
wearing points. They are susceptible to an inter- 
mittent power source. There is greater chance of a 
discharged battery and of frost damage. 

Choose an energizer based on the following 
factors : 

1. The power output required to control the 
animals to be worked with. 

2. Length of fencing material to be electrified— 
both the number and distance of hot wires. 

3. Protection against dust or corrosion if the 
energizer will be outdoors. 

4. Expected future needs for energizer. 

5. Power available— mainline, battery. 

6. Reliability of brand. 

7. Permanent fence or frequently moved temp- 
orary fence. 

8. Type of soil and its prevalent moisture 
content. 

9. Rated and actual outputs of various units. 

10. Initial and operating costs. 

11. Flasher to tell if unit is producing pulses. 

12. High-low switch to regulate power according 
to the moisture content of the soil or to train 
livestock. 



88 



13. Provision for easy mounting of portable 
units. 

14. Built-in lightning resistor. 

Energizers meeting the requirements for electric 
fencing are commercially available. 

The efficiency of an energizer is affected by the 
amount of leakage from the wires and a wet or 
dry climate. It is more effective to power a few 
short fence lines radiating from a central point 
than one long fence line . 

Pulsing sequences differ. Some energizers may 
produce uniform electrical charges between 35 to 
65 times per minute. Some energizers produce 
pulses up to 15 seconds apart. A 15-second interval 
effectively controls trained sheep. The greater 
interval greatly reduces power requirements and 
extends battery life. A new design incorporates a 
random pulsing sequence. This design emits a series 
of random charges that are more intimidating to 
livestock. A significant "off time" period follows 
the shocks and allows the animal to be released 
from the wires. 



For wood posts 



For steel posts 





Porcelain strain insulator 



Insulators 



Ceramic insulators. 



Insulators are constructed of either porcelain or 
plastic and may be attached to posts by wire clips, 
nails, staples, screws, or wrap-around tubes. Both 
porcelain and plastic types will deteriorate under 
extreme climate conditions. Porcelain insulators 
are strong and durable and resist fire damage. 
These insulators are very reliable in high strain 
positions at ends and corners. They are subject to 
frost damage, however, and can develop fine cracks 
in the glaze. 

Most insulators are designed to withstand ultra- 
violet light and up to 2,200 pounds of strain. 
Black insulators resist ultraviolet breakdown, but 
plastic insulators are less efficient than porcelain 
when dirty. They will stand stress, but have a low 
impact value. Plastic insulators should have a large 
flash plate to prevent arcing to the post. Tube 
insulators with metal inserts are quite durable. 
Tube insulators have been found to collect dirt and 
nesting insects, which can cause electrical leaks. 



Nail insulator 




Wire release insulator 




4 -inch tube insulator 




Double "U" insulator 




Wrap-around insulator 
with metal insert 



Plastic insulators. 



89 




Cut-off Switches 

Cut-off switches can be installed at intervals along 
fences to isolate sections for repairs and also can 
cut power to sections not in use. 



For insulating overhead and underground 
feedwires. Available in small and large coils 

Insultube. 




Insulated adjustable in-line wire strainer. 



Wire 

Twelve-and-a-half gauge smooth high tensile wire 
has proved most effective at the least cost. 




12Vi gauge smooth high tensile wire. 

Heavier gauge wire may be required on extremely 
long fence lines because of its lower resistance. 
Heavier gauge wire is also used for leadouts when 
the main power source is far away from the fence 
line. Lighter gauge wire (14, 14M, and 15) may be 
used for temporary electric fences. Its higher 
resistance is not appropriate for permanent electric 
fences. 




Cut-off switch 



Ceramic insulator 



Heavy-duty type 




Typical cut-off switches. 



90 



Tapping 



Line Clamps 



Tapping feedwires onto line wires on the fence, or 
connecting ground wires onto ground-return wires 
on the fence, can be accomplished using short 
segments of the same wire used on the fence. This 
method requires no fittings and, when part of the 
wire is covered with a short piece of insultube, the 
tap can be connected and disconnected without 
switching off the electricity. 



Short piece of 
insultube 



Feed wire 



Tapping feedwire onto line wire. 



Spring Connectors 

Flexible spring connectors attach to feedwires or 
ground wires as shown. Spring wire taps can easily 
be fastened to line wires without tools. Fitted with 
short lengths of plastic tubing, these can be 
connected and disconnected without switching off 
the current. 



Screw-type line clamps are economical and can be 
installed with only a screwdriver. These galvanized 
clamps provide a quick and easy method for 
tapping feed or ground wires into line wires already 
strung and stapled on the fence. 





Screw-type line clamp. 



Connectors 

Solderless connectors are installed with a small 
wrench or pliers. Solderless connectors provide 
another means of tapping feed or ground wires 
onto line wires already installed on the fence. 





Solderless connector. 



Joint Clamps 

Wire joint clamps are a bolt-type clamp that 
installs easily with a screw driver and pliers for 
tapping feed or ground wires onto existing fence 
wires. 




Flexible spring connector. 



Wire joint clamp. 



91 



Nicotap Sleeves 



Shockstop 



Nicotap sleeves are economical fittings for 
permanently tapping feed and ground wires onto 
line wires. These sleeves allow connecting new 
wires to existing wires without cutting or splicing. 





Nicotap sleeves. 



Nicopress Sleeves 

Nicopress sleeves are economical fittings for 
permanently tapping feed and ground wires into 
line wires. Sleeves must be threaded onto the line 
wires and moved to the exact location where they 
will be fastened before tying off and stapling the 
line wires. They must be crimped with a crimping 
tool and cannot be removed once installed. They 
are available in various sizes to accommodate 
different gauges of wire. 




A shockstop is an electronic cut-off switch that 
allows you to switch the power on and off 
anywhere along the fence by transmitting a signal 
back to the control unit with the hand unit. The 
control unit is connected to the main power 
energizer, which allows you to easily move or work 
on the fence. 



Voltage Spike Protector 

A voltage spike protector protects the energizer 
from power voltage surges and is recommended for 
rural areas where power fluctuations are common. 




Nicopress sleeve. 



Voltage spike protector. 



Voltage Alarm 

A fence voltage alarm is an electronic monitoring 
device that can monitor 110-, 220-, or 12-volt 
energized fences. It features both audible and 
visual indicators for showing interrupted power. 
It also has a 12-volt output terminal that can be 
attached to a horn or flashing light. It can be 
powered by either two 6-volt batteries (inside the 
case) or the same 12-volt battery that powers the 
energizer. 



Volt Meter 

A volt meter is the single most important tool 
one can have to properly install and maintain an 
electric fence. It allows effective monitoring of the 
voltage. If the voltage falls below 2,000 volts, 
disconnect the fence and attach the volt meter to 
the energizer. If the voltage is normal, then the 
problem is in the fence. 



Hot (+) 




Lightning Ancestor 

A lightning arrestor allows a spark gap in the por- 
celain base to let lightning go to the ground before 
it can reach the energizer. 



Line clamp 




Insulated cable 



Lightning arrestor 

•JLJ ft/L. 

Ground rod 



Lightning arrestor. 



92 



Warning Signs 



Electroplastic Twine (Temporary) 



Warning signs are required on electric fences where 
people may contact them. The interval for these 
warning signs should not exceed 300 feet. 




Warning sign. 



Posts 

Posts and braces for electric fences are the same 
as those for standard wire fences. High density 
wood posts are reported to be nonconductive. 
Density is sometimes enhanced by pressure treating 
with creosote. There is some electrical leakage with 
these posts during wet periods. 



Clip loosely 



to 



^^ v 



Hi-tensile wire 



** 



t* + ■* 



Ground line M\W 



*v Insultimber post 

Fiberglass post 



■ aA^ 



Electroplastic Twine has a variety of stainless 
steel filaments (3 to 9) intertwined with ultra- 
violet stabilized polyethylene/polypropolene cord. 
The stainless steel filaments are loosely looped 
throughout the poly-cord, which exposes them to 
animals that contact the twine. 



Electroplastic twine. 

Advantages are: 

1 . It is very lightweight. 

2. It is fairly elastic. 

3. It is easily knotted. 

4. It requires only hand tightening. 

5. Its breaking strength is over 190 pounds. 

6. As the number of filaments increase, the 
electric resistance lowers. 

Disadvantages are : 

1. It weathers poorly. 

2. If the filaments break and the poly -cord does 
not, it is hard to find the break. 

3. Capabilities of the energizer are lowered 
because of high wire resistance. To join two 
electroplastic twines, tie a double overhand knot. 



Posts. 



93 



Electroplastic Netting (Temporary) 



Electroplastic Tape 



Electroplastic netting is constructed of the same 
material as the electroplastic twine. Only the top 
strands contain the stainless steel filaments that 
carry the electric charge. The bottom horizontal 
and all vertical strands are made up of only ulta- 
violet stabilized polyethylene/polypropolene cord, 
which cannot carry an electric charge. The netting 
comes in various sizes from 20 inches to 42 inches 
high and the number of electrified wires varies 
from 6 to 7. The netting is supported at 12y2-foot 
intervals with fiberglass posts. The netting comes in 
lengths of 150 feet and weighs between 8 and 10 
pounds. It has all the advantages and disadvantages 
of electroplastic twine. However, because the 
netting contains more electrical conductors, it 
carries an electric charge twice as far as electro- 
plastic twine. 



fiberglass posts 




7 top horizontal wires "it 
electrified 

HORSE AND GOAT FENCE 




6 top horizontal wires ^"i^'y 
electrified 

SHEEP AND HOG FENCE 




6 top horizontal wires 
electrified 

RABBIT AND RODENT FENCE 



Electroplastic tape is Vfe-inch wide with five strands 
of stainless steel filament running through it. Its 
advantages are : 

1. Its light weight, 

2. Its high visibility, 

3. It is fairly elastic, 

4. It joins with a simple knot, 

5. It requires only hand tightening. 
Its disadvantages are : 

1. Breaks in the conductive filaments are hard 
to find if the tape is not broken. 

2. The capabilities of the energizer are reduced 
because of high wire resistance. 

3. It weathers poorly. 

The tape may be held in place with special 
insulated pig-tail stakes. Other posts may also be 
used as long as the tape is held at the desired 
height and properly insulated. Good electrical 
connections are made with a double overhand 
knot. 

A plastic ribbon coated with conductive aluminum 
carries the electric charge. The aluminum coating is 
highly visible. The ribbon is twisted as it flips off 
the roll. This provides a reflective surface that 
flickers in the wind and attracts animals. The 
ribbon has a high resistance to electrical flow that 
reduces the capacity of the energizer. This is an 
effective material for temporary fences. 



94 



Permanent Tape 



Portable Reels 



For large areas, 14-gauge steel wire with an alumigel 
coating can be used. Once this fence is erected, a 
roll of Vi-inch yellow polypropolene tape is 
wrapped around the individual wires, two to three 
wraps every 16 feet, to give the wire high visibility. 

Advantages are: 

1. It provides the high visibility desired to 
attract animals to the wire and, once trained, to 
avoid it. 



There are a variety of reels to roll up and hold 
any of the wire used in temporary electric fencing. 
These reels easily unwind and rewind the wire 
they hold for easy transportation. The reels have 
brakes that hold tension on the wire when it is 
strung out in a fence line. 

The maximum length of single strand electro- 
plastic twine on each reel is 1,980 feet. The 
maximum length of three strands of electroplastic 
twine on one reel is 660 feet. 



2. If the tape deteriorates or is damaged, it can 
be easily replaced with new tape. 

3. It conducts the electrical current better. 

4. It is stronger than electroplastic twines or 
tapes and is less susceptible to damage. 

5. Repairs are made either with standard elec- 
trical wire knots or crimping sleeves for 14-gauge 
wire. 

Disadvantages are : 

1. It is heavier than electroplastic twines or 
tapes. 

2. It is more difficult to roll up than electro- 
plastic twines and tapes. 

3. It requires extra wrapping for visibility. 



These reels can be attached to various types of 
posts or to the wires of an adjoining fence line. 
Some posts may need extra bracing to withstand 
the strain of the wire tension. 




Portable reel. 



Off Set Brackets: 

There are various types of off set brackets that 
can be used to renovate old fence lines. 




Off set bracket. 



95 



Safety 

Anyone constructing electric fences should insure 
that these measures are adhered to : 

1. Do not allow guide or line wires to contact 
any power lines. 

2. Do not erect wires or ground wires near 
overhead power lines, telephone wires, or radio 
antennas. This not only prevents broken power 
lines from contacting fence wires, but it avoids 
interference. 

3. Install mainline energizers inside a building 
or a structure free from risk of damage if possible. 
The energizer must not be attached to a power 
pole. All 110-volt or 220-volt supply lines for 
mainline energizers should be installed according 
to local electrical codes by a competent electrician. 
The energizer should be installed out of reach of 
children in a location free from risk of mechanical 
damage and flammable material. 

4. The earth terminal on the fence energizer 
must be connected to grounding rods. Never 
connect the fence energizer earth terminal to any 
other grounding device. Establish one for it alone. 
At the same time, make sure that fence energizer 
grounding rods are at least 6 feet (2 meters) away 
from any other grounding rods for other purposes. 

5. Under no circumstances should more than 
one energizer be connected to the same electric 
fence. Maintain at least 6-foot (2 meter) spacing 
between fence wires connected to different ener- 
gizers. 

6. Where the public may contact an electric 
fence, approved warning signs should appear at 
intervals not exceeding 300 feet (100 meters). 
These warning signs normally state "Electric 
Fence" or "Live Wires". 

7 Where an electric fence crosses a public 
pathway, install a non-electrified gate or a safe 
crossing. 

8. Where an electric fence wire crosses a public 
highway, maintain at least 15 feet (5 meters) 
between the wire and the surface of the highway. 

9. Do not install any portion of an electric 
fence or make repairs or adjust wire tensions with 
the current on. Disconnect the feedwires to the 
segment of fence to be worked on. 



10. When testing an electric fence with a volt- 
meter, wear rubber gloves or rubber-soled shoes to 
minimize electric shocks. Wear a non-metallic 
hard hat. Any electrical shock is intensified if the 
hands and feet and clothing are wet from rain or 
perspiration. 

11. If testing a fence without a voltmeter or test 
light, place the palm of one hand on the soil and 
slide a blade of green grass forward gradually 
against a live wire. A trickle of current indicates 
the current is "on". 

12. Never grasp a wire on an electric fence. Even 
if the current is off, test a live wire first with the 
back of your fingers. In the event of a shock, 
the reflex will pull fingers away from the wire. 

13. In areas with dry grass, reduce the output of 
the energizer to minimize the risk of fire. 

14. Keep all metallic farm implements away from 
electric fences. Do not tether livestock with 
chains near electric fences. 

15. Warn all children that a fence is electrified 
and instruct several responsible persons on how to 
switch off or disconnect the current. 

16. Do not attempt to repair or modify any 
electric fence energizer. Return it to the authorized 
dealer for service. 

17. Do not construct or repair electric fences 
during thunderstorms. 

18. Install proper ground connections on power 
poles or buildings to protect them from lightning. 

Most modern electric fence energizers have some 
form of lightning protection built into them by 
the manufacturer. Nothing totally protects from 
lightning. Several of the solid-state energizers have 
modules that are quickly replaced. Some users of 
electric fences advocate shutting off the supply of 
electricity to the fence during electric storms, 
others contend that no human or animal is likely 
to contact the wires during a lightning strike. It 
is wise to keep humans and animals away from 
electric fences during electrical storms. 



96 



A lightning arrestor is an important accessory on 
an electric fence. The spark gap in the porcelain 
base lets lightning go to the ground before it can 
reach the energizer. For maximum protection, 
the lightning arrestor should be installed between 
the energizer and the fence or on the fence as close 
as possible to the energizer. However, the 
grounding rods for the lightning arrestor must be 
at least 40 feet (20 meters) from the energizer's 
grounding rods. 

All hot wires are attached to the fence terminal 
on the lightning arrestor with insulated cable and 
the ground terminal is attached to the ground rod 
with high tensile wire. Three lightning arresters 
should be installed on each fence. 



A choke assembly can also be constructed and used 
in combination with the lightning arrestor. The 
choke causes a blocking effect for the extremely 
high voltage of the lightning, so it jumps the 
carbon discs inside the lightning arrestor and 
disperses into the ground. 

For total protection of the energizer during storms, 
unplug it and disconnect the earth and fence 
terminals from the energizer. In bad lightning 
areas, the top wire of the fence can be an earth 
one, grounded every 1,100 yards in damp areas to 
act as a lightning rod for the fence line. 



Energizer 

II 



4 



>flr— ■■■■ f***^ ."^ **' 

5 turns of Choke 
fenre wire .— ' 




Lightning arrestor 



10' + 



8' 



Energizer earth/ground system 



Lightning diverter earth/ground system 



Choke assembly. 



97 






Construction 



Laying The Line 

Laying out lines for electric fences requires more 
care than laying out nonelectric fences. Because 
lighter posts are often used, special attention must 
be paid to posts in curves, on corners, and over 
uneven terrain. Take special care to clear the fence 
line. This is especially important if live wires are 
to be placed at low levels on the posts. Remove 
all underbrush and debris along the entire line. 
Grade off humps and mow weeds and grass. 

Plan the placement of disconnectable joints on the 
feed wires and the subdivisional wires. There can 



be only one connection from the energizer to the 
feeder lines and joints to enable a person to 
disconnect each feed wire and the associated sub- 
divisional wires individually. Only one end of a 
subdivisional wire should be connected to a feed 
wire. The other end simply terminates at the strain 
insulator. 

The following examples illustrate how disconnect- 
able electric joints can be used to energize different 
areas as they are needed or for finding faults that 
occur somewhere in the system. 



Energizer 



Ground 



Ground 
rods ♦ 




This system permits only single feeding areas to be 
energized through the use of disconnectable joints 

Underground 

live wire 

mb 



Separation of wires 
D Insulator 

t^J Disconnectable joint 



Note: Each energized line eventually 
is deadended at an insulator 



Disconnectable electric joints. 



98 



Energizer 



Ground 



+" 



Ground 
rods 



&v 



m 

c 



Fence 



Energized 



^ 



This system encloses one large 
area. Disconnectable joints are 
used in strategic locations in the 
fence to facilitate fault finding. 



ft 



L, 



Energized 



D Insulator 
(J^ - ^ Disconnectable joint 



Energizer 



Ground 



Ground 
rods 




Telephone line or cable 



Fence 



P- 



J~V 



This system avoids telephone 
interference by not running the 
electric feeder line close to the 
telephone line or cable. Telephone 
interference may occur when the 
fence line close to the telephone 
line or cable is charged. 






«rv> 



Feeder line 



-L 



Feeder line 



D Insulator 
y ~ / ^9 Disconnectable joint 



Disconnectable electric joints. 



99 



Special considerations apply when constructing 
electric fences. Stringing the guide wire is the key 
to properly locating the line posts for electric 
fences. The guide wire is the lowest permanent 
wire on the fence. Depending on whether it is a 
ground-return wire or a live or neutral wire, 
allowances must be made for fasteners and 
insulators for later connections and tying off. 
There are several means of doing this. The least 
expensive method requires making a "long" 
temporary tie-off on the starting post and on the 
far end post. A long tie-off is made simply by 
wrapping the end of the wire two to four times 
around the starting post before tying it off with 
an end post knot. A similar long tie-off should be 
made at the far end post. 



Starting post and 
far end post 




temporary tie-off 



Remember: 

1. Tension the guide wire so it retains its 
alignment. 

2. All round posts in curves and corners should 
be driven so the guide wire is outside the posts. 

3. Posts should be driven with a 2-inch to 4-inch 
lean to counteract the pull of the wires. 

4. If the posts have a natural taper, they should 
be positioned '/2-inch to 3/4-inch away from the 
guide wire so it does not touch the wire after 
being driven. Posts that do not taper should be 
placed as close as possible to the guide wire 
without touching it. All posts should be marked 
to their maximum driving depth in the soil before 
driving them. 




Temporary fastening of 
live wires to rise post . 



"Long" temporary tie-off- 



If uneven terrain requires one or more posts in 
rises or dips, relieve the tension on the guide wire 
enough to fasten it to all rise and dip posts. If the 
guide wire is to be electrified using tube insulators 
and sleeves, it should be temporarily fastened to 
the rise and dip posts with a staple and nail. For 
threading the tubes, simply remove the nails and, 
after all tubes are in position, drive another staple 
downward or upward. 




Permanent fastening of 
live wires to dip post . 




Temporary fastening of 
live wires to dip post. 




Permanent fastening of 
live wires to rise post. 



100 



Except for installing insulators and providing for 
the electrical connections, the procedures for 
stringing the line wires on electric fences erected 
in straight lines over level terrain are similar to 
those for stringing the wire on high tensile wire 
fences. 

Choose one of the following procedures for install- 
ing electric fences : 

1. On short fences, 1,000 feet or less with up to 
four additional wires, pay out the line wires one 
at a time from alternate ends of the fence. This 
requires at least two payout reels. 

On longer fences with five or more additional 
wires, use a multi-reeled wire payout mechanism. 

2. If the fence is to have only one or two live 
wires, provide for all electrical connections wire 
by wire. If it is to have several additional live 
wires and ground-return wires, string all wires and 
make long, temporary tie-offs at the ends. Perform 
all electrical work at each end post later before 
making permanent tie-offs. 

3. If the fence has relatively few live wires and 
round posts, use insulators and line taps that can 
be used after the wires are strung and permanently 
tied off. Or, use insulators and line taps that must 
be threaded onto the wires before they are per- 
manently tied off. 

4. On short fences, 600 feet or less, thread 
insulators and sleeves from one end of the fence 
to the other. On longer fences, thread insulators 
from each end toward the midpost. 

5. If the fence has one or more posts in rises or 
dips, when paying out the line wires, fasten all the 
wires to each rise and dip post before paying them 
out and tying them off. 

To permit later unfastening, live wires can be 
fastened to rise and dip posts as shown on 
opposite page. 

For threading tubes or other thread-on insulators, 
remove the nails and drive another staple 
downward or upward, as needed, for the site. 



Plastic insulators can be attached any time, since 
they have a detachable wire system. 




Typical plastic insulator. 



Top quality porcelain insulators may be used on 
rise and dip posts also. 





Porcelain insulators . 



101 



If any round post becomes the common post in 
a 90° -comer, string all wires continuously around 
the outside of that post as well as around the 
outside of all posts in the brace assemblies. 



Ground-return wire 

m r, i 




9" length of 
wrap-around 
insulator 



A continuous wire around a corner does not allow 
disconnecting the current to the new direction of 
the fence line. This may be done by tying off the 
live wire and the ground wire. A long tie-off on a 
live wire from one direction provides a live but 
disconnectable jumper to the live wire at equal 
height on the new direction of the fence line. This 
allows you to check each line separately for 
electrical faults. The ground-return wire may be 
continuous. 

1. Wrap-around insulators, insultube, and 
flexible spring connectors. 

Ground-return wire 

V 



Method of wiring round common 
post at a 90° corner. 



For tying on inside corners and not using press 
sleeves, the New Zealand knot for strain posts is 
used. Then take two wraps around the donut 
insulator and tie off. Keep the insulator as close to 
the posts as possible. 

Nicopress sleeves can also be used. 




Felxible 

spring 

connector 



Live wire 



18" wrap-around >j\ . 
insulators 1/ 



Wiring corner post with 
disconnectable live wire. 



Take 2 wraps around 
insulator 




Tying on inside corner using 
New Zealand knot. 



Nicopress sleeve 




Porcelain insulator 



Take 2 wraps 
around insulator 



2. Porcelain insulators, insultube, and a high 
tensile wire joint. 

This simple and disconnectable joint can be made 
from 12V2 gauge high tensile wire. A simple 
insulated handle can be made from high density 
insultube. When constructing the disconnectable 
joint, it is important to follow these dimensions 
to insure a good tight joint. 

High tensile wire 
(see detail next page) 




Live wire 



Live wire 

Porcelain insulator 



Porcelain insulator 



Tying on inside corner using 
Nicopress sleeves. 



Disconnectable joint. 



102 



IV 



J. 

T 



Disconnectable joint detail. 



3. Switches can also be used on individual lines. 

Instead of having individual connections between 
each line, use just one connection for all the live 
wires in the fence line. However, using one wire to 
connect the two fence lines can lower the flow of 
electricity. 

Insultube 



Live wire 



Switch 



Insultube 



Disconnectable joint using switch. 




Insultube 



Ground rod 



Multiple wire disconnectable joint 



103 



On long fence lines, live and ground-return wires 
should be joined to themselves with insulated 
jumper wires at intervals not exceeding 1 mile. 




Insulated jumper wires 



Joining live and ground-return wire 
on long fence lines. 



If the fence consists of all live wires, one 
continuous uninsulated jumper wire should be 
installed at intervals not exceeding 1 mile. 



n 



„sS*s. 



_>Cx 



_ + 



— + 



+ 



s $&~ 



.^^ 



sak=_ 



Joining live wires on long fence lines. 



In these locations, a nicopress sleeve will be 
needed. Mark such locations on a counting guide 
with an "S" for nicopress sleeve. Also mark each 
post where a ground rod will be located— 1,500 
feet of fence for dry areas and 3,000 feet in wet 
areas. A nicopress sleeve will be threaded on for 
these locations. Following is a sample counting 
guide : 



All live wires and all ground wires on electric 
fences should be joined to themselves with a con- 
tinuous jumper wire. These connections should be 
made near each starting, ending, and gate post. 
Use insultube to insulate the wires from each 
other. 



R ■ Rise Post 
D - Dip Post 
C = Corner Post 
M = Mid-point Post 
S ■ Nicopress Sleeve 



END 
POST 



SAME 
POST 



3£^« 




Insultube 



Starting, ending 
or gate post 



Join live and ground wires near starting, 
ending and gate posts. 

The procedure for threading tube insulators and 
nicopress sleeves : 

1. Having driven all the line posts, mark each 
round post with the height of each wire. Begin at 
the starting post and work to the fartherest end 
post where the wires are to be permanently tied 
off. 

2. While one person is doing Step 1, another 
person walks the fence line and writes down the 
number of each round wood post in sequence, 
beginning with number 1 at the starting post. 



END 
POST 

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 



STARTING 
POST 

t 

6 5 4 3 2 1 



On very long fences, or on those with large 
numbers of round wood posts, one may prefer 
to locate and mark the midpost. Then count the 
other portion of the fence line from the far end, 
starting again with number 1 . 



End Post 

I 

12 3 4 5 6 7 



8 9 



Mid 
Post 
i \ 
10 11 ©@ 10 

Same 
Post 



9 8 



Starting 
Post 

I 

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 



SAME 
POST 

3)<b 



12 3 4 5(5X2)6 5 4 3 2 0(lf) 1 
S D M M R C C 

S S 



STARTING 
POST 

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 

R D S 



104 



It does not matter that the midpost might not 
have the same number, as long as you know 
exactly how many round wood posts are to the 
left and right of it. 

3. While counting the round wood posts, mark 
the specific number of each post where the guide 
wire changes direction off a straight line (such as 
on rises, dips, corners, or curves). Each post in 
such locations requires threading a wrap-around 
insulator tube on each live and neutral wire. 
Wrap-around insulator tube contains an internal 
metal reinforcement strip that keeps the wire 
from cutting through the insulator tube. These 
tubes are 18 inches long. Only at end posts, where 
the wire is to be permanently tied, is the full 
18 inches needed. At other points, the tube can be 
cut to the length required— 9 inches for curves, 
up to a 90° corner where the live wire is to be 
continuous, and 6 inches for rise and dip locations. 



4. Make a sketch or diagram of the electrical 
connections to be made on the wires at the starting 
point, at any 90° corners, and at the far end post. 
Carefully note which kind of insulator and fastener 
will be used. The following example shows a 
six -wire fence with a neutral bottom wire and with 
alternating live and ground-return wires from there 
up. All wires are strung simultaneously with 
temporary long tie-off s. 



It is particularly important that if permanent 
electrical connections are to be made with 
nicopress sleeves, the sleeves should not be crimped 
until the lines have been tensioned. 

5. Load five coils of high tensile fence wire onto 
a multi-reeled payout mechanism. Working from 
the second wire up, tie off all remaining wires at 
their premarked heights by wrapping each wire 
two to four times around the post and tying it 
off with an end post knot. Be sure to start 
wrapping each wire from the livestock side of the 
post. 

6. Having temporarily tied off all line wires, 
start the tractor and drive at a slow even speed 
down the fence line on the wire side of the posts. 
Pay out the wires as close as possible to the 
posts. Maintain enough tension on the wires to 
prevent loops that could become kinks under 
tension. Be careful to stop all reels if the tractor 
is stopped. Remember that the wires must be 
strung around the outsides of all posts in corners 
and curves. It is all right to drive over the guide 
wire, but be sure to return to the livestock side of 
all line posts in straight lines. 

7. Stop at each rise and dip post and at the 
midpost. Working from the top wire down, 
temporarily fasten all wires at their proper height 
marks with staples. 



Nicopress sleeves 




Flexible spring connector 




Ground rod 

W plastic pipe 

Live wire from energizer 

Ground wire from energizer 

Typical diagram of electrical connections. 




Temporary wire stapling. 



105 



8. At 90° corners, if the wires are not to be 
tied off, keep all wires to the outside of all posts in 
the brace assemblies and return to the livestock 
side only at the first line post. If the wires are to 
be tied off, stay on the livestock side of the posts 
at the far end brace assembly. 

9. Resume paying out the wires to a point about 
6 feet beyond the far end post. Stop the tractor 
and the payout reels to maintain sufficient tension 
on the wires and keep them separated and off the 
ground. 

10. Working from the second wire up, cut each 
wire off its reel. Allow at least 3 feet to wrap it 
at least twice from the livestock side around the 
end post and tie it off with an end post knot. 
Each wrap around a 6-inch diameter post requires 
about 20 inches of wire. The number of wraps, 
depends on how long the jumper must be to 
reach the next higher live wire. 



Installing Insulators and Nicropress Sleeves 

Having strung and temporarily stapled all the 
line wires to rise and dip posts and the midpost, 
return to the starting end post and, with the 
number post data and wiring diagram in hand, 
install the insulators. 



SAME 

END SAME CORNER STARTING 

POST POST POST POST 

♦ M t * \ 

12 3 4 5 ©© 6 5 4 3 2 ©@ 10 987654321 



M M 



R = Rise Post 
D = Dip Post 
C ■ Corner Post 



C C 

s s 



M = Mid-point Post 
S - Nicopress Sleeve 

Wiring diagram. 



R D 



2. Using the corner post diagram, number post 
data, and the beginning post diagram, figure the 
number, type, and placement of insulators and 
nicopress sleeves. 

Place them on the bottom wire in the following 
order : 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

Two nicopress sleeves 

Four 4-inch tube insulators 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

One 4-inch tube insulator 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

Two 4-inch tube insulators 

Two nicopress sleeves 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

3. Tie off the bottom wire. 

Wrap the insulated wire around the starting end 
post. Be sure that the metal insert in the wrap- 
around insulator faces toward the post to prevent 
the wire from cutting through the tube insulation. 
Insert the wire through the two sleeves. Push the 
sleeves back onto both wires to within 4 inches of 
the post. Be sure that the surplus end of the wire 
beyond the sleeves is at least 8 inches long. Crimp 
the sleeves. 

18" insultube 




2 nicopress sleeves 



Starting end post 



Bottom wire tie off. 



1. Make sure there is almost no tension on the 
lowest wire. Untie the end post knot and cut off 
that portion twisted for the knot to eliminate the 
kinked wire. Unwrap the wire from the post. 
Following the numbered list of posts, thread all 
4-inch tube insulators and wrap-around insulators 
onto the bottom wire. Count from the corner post 
backwards, including all posts in the brace 
assembly. As the insulators and nicopress sleeves 
are added to the wire, push them towards the 
corner post. 



Thread all the other lines with insulators and 
sleeves as needed. Then, all of the insulators and 
sleeeves can be installed in one process as they are 
worked toward the corner post. The other nico- 
press sleeves should not be crimped on the wires 
until the lines have been fully tensioned. 



106 



4. Use the numbered post data sheet and the end 
post diagrams to place the second wire. Start with 
the corner post and work back to the starting end 
post. Additional tube insulators are needed to 
prevent shorting out the live wire with the diagonal 
brace wire. The surplus end of the wire beyond 
the sleeves must be long enough to provide a con- 
tinuous insulated jumper wire to the fourth wire, 
which is also a live wire. Position all insulators on 
the posts so that no bare portion of the wire 
touches the post. Secure the insulator by driving 
one staple over the tubing. Do not drive the staple 
into the tubing. 

The procedures for installing the second wire are : 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

Two nicopress sleeves 

Five 4-inch tube insulators 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

One 4-inch tube insulator 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

Three 4-inch tube insulators 

Two nicopress sleeves 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

Once the insulators and sleeves have been placed 
on the second wire, tie off in the same manner as 
the bottom wire, except that the surplus end of 
the wire must be long enough to reach the fourth 
wire, which forms the continuous jumper wire. 

5. Refer to the numbered post data and end post 
diagram and place the third wire. Start at the 
corner post and work back to the starting end post. 
This is a ground-return wire and will not require 
insulators. Since the wires are being broken and 
tensioned at the corner post, three nicopress 
sleeves will be needed there— one for the 
ground-rod wire. The surplus end of the wire at the 
corner post will have to be long enough to reach 
the wire at the same height going in the other 
direction. 

To install the third wire, follow these procedures: 

Six nicopress sleeves. 



6. The fourth wire is also a live wire and has the 
same insulation requirements as the second wire. 
However, since the cut-off switches and insulated 
jumper wires are attached to this line, more sleeves 
are required. 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

Four nicopress sleeves 

Five 4-inch tube insulators 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

One 4-inch tube insulator 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

Three 4-inch tube insulators 

Four nicopress sleeves 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

Once the insulators and sleeves have been threaded 
on the fourth wire, it is ready to be tied off. Be 
sure the surplus end of the wire is long enough 
to provide a live jumper line to the sixth wire. 

7. The fifth wire is a ground-return wire like 
the third wire. However, it has one additional 
sleeve for attaching the ground wire. 

Seven nicopress sleeves. 

The sixth wire is the top live wire and it has the 
same insulation requirements as the bottom wire. 
If it does come in contact with the diagonal brace 
wire , a piece of tube insulation will be needed for 
those locations. Be sure that live wires do not 
contact the ground. Always provide adequate 
insulation. Additional sleeves will have to be added 
to secure the continuous jumper wires from the 
fourth wire. Refer to the numbered post data and 
the post diagrams to install the insulator and sleeve 
needs for the sixth wire. 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

Three nicopress sleeves 

Four 4-inch tube insulators 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

One 4-inch tube insulator 

One 6-inch wrap-around insulator 

Two 4-inch tube insulators 

Three nicopress sleeves 

One 18-inch wrap-around insulator 

After the insulator and sleeves have been placed 
on the sixth wire, tie it off in the same manner as 
all the other wires, except the excess wire should 
be cut short. 

Now, before the wires can be tensioned, the insul- 
ators and sleeves threaded on the wires need to be 
pushed down the lines and placed at their appro- 
priate locations. 



107 



11 



10 



a^u 




8 




7 






_ Air 






u 



Rise post 



kfc 



Nicopress sleeves 



Dip post 



Typical wiring diagram. 



The rise and dip posts have had fence wires 
temporarily fastened. These are the locations that 
will have the insulators permanently attached to 
the posts before tensioning. 

Starting with the top wire, the sixth wire, push all 
of the insulators and sleeves not needed between 
the starting end post and the second post past the 
second post. Do not crimp any sleeves at this time. 
Place the last insultube near post No. 2, where it 
will be secured after the wires have been tensioned. 
Go to wire No. 5 and push the three sleeves not 
needed here past the second post. Go to wire No. 4 
and push all the insulators and sleeves not needed 
between the starting end post and post No. 2. 
Leave the last two insultubes near post No. 2 
where they will be secured after tensioning. 
Continue this procedure down to the bottom wire. 
Then work all of the items that are past post No. 2 
down the lines to post No. 3. Leave the last insul- 
tube on the live wires near post No. 3 where it will 
be attached after tensioning the wires. Continue 
working the rest of the insulators and sleeves on 
all the wires to post No. 4. Since post No. 4 is at 
the bottom of a slope, the wires are pulling 
upwards at this point and have been temporarily 
attached to the post. 

Pull the nails that are acting as locks and work the 
insulators and sleeves past this post. The last 
insulator should be a 6-inch wrap-around type. 
Place the insulators so the metal insert is on the 
top of the tube. It will then bear the upward 
pressure of the wire. Otherwise, the upward 
pressure of the wire will gradually cut through the 
unprotected insulator tube. 

Secure the wrap-around insulators in place. 




Temporary wire attachment to 
post no. 4 (dip post). 




Final wire attachment to post no. 4. 



108 



After all the wrap-around insulators have been 
attached to post No. 4, work the remaining 
insulators and sleeves past post No. 5, leaving the 
last insultube on the live wires near post No. 5, 
where they will be attached after tensioning of 
the wires. 

Continue working the remaining insulators and 
sleeves up to post No. 6, which is at the top of 
the slope and has downward wire pressure. The 
wires have been temporarily fastened to the post. 




Temporary wire attachment to 
post no. 6 (rise post). 



Pull the nails and work the insulators and sleeves 
past post No. 6. The last insulator should be a 
6-inch wrap-around type. Place the insulators so 
the metal insert is on the bottom of the tube. 
It will then bear the downward wire pressure. 




Locating and Installing In-Line Adjustable Wire 
Strainers 

Once both ends of the fence line have been 
permanently tied off, the in-line strainers need to 
be installed. Installing in-line adjustable wire 
strainers on electric fences is essentially the same 
as for nonelectric fences. For fences over 600 feet 
long, in-line strainers should be installed near the 
midpost in the fence. Only uninsulated strainers 
can be used, since live wires must remain live on 
both sides of the strainers. Insulated strainers are 
available, but their use is limited to near a gate or 
end post where they can eliminate either a wrap- 
around, a porcelain donut, or a double "U" 
insulator per live wire. However, since the strainers 
tend to move forward several inches in the 
direction from which wire is being taken up on 
the drum, they must be installed with the drum 
facing the direction away from the post. The 
strainers should also be located away from the post 
so they will not contact the post as they move 
forward. 




Final wire attachment to post no. 6. 



Installing in-line adjustable wire strainer. 



Continue working the insulators and sleeves to the 
end of the fence line, leaving the tube insulators 
at the appropriate posts. 

Using the corner post diagram, tie off the fence 
wires. The fence wires will be slack since the in-line 
wire strainers and a tension indicator spring will be 
added later to set the correct wire tension. The 
tie-off is done in the same manner as on the 
starting end post, except that the length of surplus 
wire past the nicopress sleeves will vary. 



1. Before attempting to install in-line adjustable 
wire strainers, all wires must be permanently fast- 
ened at their proper heights on the midpost, to all 
rise and dip posts, and to all posts in corners and 
curves. Remove the retaining nails. Center the 
insulator under or over the existing staple. Drive 
another staple upward or downward, depending on 
whether the post is in a rise or dip. Do not drive 
the staple too deep. The wire should be free to 
run. On corner posts, or those in curves, only one 
staple should be required to hold the insulator in 
position. 



109 



2. At midpoint in the fence, where the line wires 
have been permanently stapled, and working from 
the top wire down, attach a chain-grab wire puller 
about 4 feet away from the midpost and pull all 
slack out of the wire. A tension indicator may be 
attached. 



Chain-grab wire puller 




Midpost 



Pulling slack from wire . 



3. Cut the wire at about midpoint in the slack 
between the jaws of the wire puller and install an 
uninsulated in-line wire strainer. Thread two 
nicopress sleeves onto the wire nearest the 
midpost. Slide them back 12 inches and thread the 
wire through the holes in the shank of the strainer 
about 6 inches. Bend the end of the wire back onto 
itself. Slide the sleeves forward about 3 inches to 
enclose both wires. Crimp the sleeves. 



About 3" 




5. Attach the wire puller onto the next lower 
wire (the fifth) and pull out the slack. Cut the 
wire between the jaws of the wire puller and in- 
stall an in-line wire strainer with a tension indicator 
spring attached as shown. Place the strainer in the 
same direction as the one attached earlier and 
tension the fifth wire the same way as the top 
wire. Repeat procedures 2 through 4 for installing 
strainers on the remaining four wires. Only one 
tension indicator spring is required per leg of 
fence. Even if the fence requires more than one 
strainer per wire, only one tension indicator on 
the second wire from the top in the middle of the 
fence is required. If more than one strainer per 
• r ire is required, do not take up much tension on 
any one strainer until the others have been 
installed. Defer tensioning to the recommended 
wire tension until all stapling has been competed. 




Tension indicator 



Installing tension indicator. 



Uninsulated in-line 
wire strainer 



Installing in-line wire strainer. 



4. Thread the other end of the wire through the 
hole in the drum of the strainer and cut off the 
surplus wire close to the drum. Attach the handle 
and turn the drum enough to secure the wire and 
insert the ratchet pin. Continue turning the drum 
until the wire no longer sags. Do not tension the 
wire more than enough to keep it horizontal. 
Remove the chain-grab wire puller. 



Thread wire 
through hole 
in drum 




110 



Splicing Wires 



Tensioning the Wire 



Splicing high tensile wires on electric fences can be 
accomplished in any of the four ways shown. 
The knots give only about 75 percent of the 
strength of the wire. Once wire is spliced, it is 
impossible to slide any insulators or sleeves in 
either direction past the splice. 






"FT 
D 





Four methods of splicing high tensile wires. 



It may sometimes be necessary to string electric 
fence wires across a wide ravine to a continuation 
of the electric fence on the other side. If only 
one live wire is used, a considerable drop in voltage 
will result in the remainder of the fence because 
of surge impedance. To prevent this, it is best to 
string at least as many live wires as are on the 
initial fence (and at least one ground return wire if 
appropriate) across the ravine. The same effect 
can be achieved by using larger diameter wire. 
Take care not to cross the wires; install non- 
conductive stays to hold the wires apart. This can 
be made up at ground level and then raised by 
gradually and evenly tensioning the wires. 



Tension the wire 
nonelectric fences 



in the same way as for 



Stays about every 30 feet 




All types of wire may break and recoil when 
overstretched. Use hand and eye protection when 
handling high tensile fence wire. As with non- 
electric fences, wires on electric fences should be 
tensioned from the top wire downward. 

1. Tension the top wire until it is hand-taut 
and free from other wires. 

2. Tension the next lower wire with the tension 
indicator spring behind the in-line strainer to 
approximately 150 pounds. 

3. Return to the top wire and re tension it until 
it feels about the same tautness as the wire with 
the indicator spring. Continue tensioning all the 
wires to the same degree of tautness, down to the 
bottom wire. 

If Keppers Easy-Set Posts, insultimber posts, 
plastic posts, or fiberglass posts are used, be sure 
that the fence wires are allowed complete freedom 
of movement. If round wooden posts are used, 
staple all the fence wires to them at their proper 
heights. Be sure that the insulators are correctly 
positioned at their right location before stapling. 
Once all the wires have been fastened to all the 
posts in the fence line, increase the wire tension 
to that recommended by the manufacturer. 

Next, correct the positions of all nicopress sleeves 
that will be used for continuous live jumper wires, 
feeder wires, and one-piece ground jumper wires. 
Place tube insulators on these wires to insulate 
them from any possibility of grounding out. Feed 
the wire as needed through the sleeve and crimp it 
in its proper position. Also position the insultubes 
on the live wires to protect them from shorting out 
on the diagonal brace wire. 

After the fence wires have been tensioned to the 
recommended pounds and the jumper wires 
crimped to them, stays can be attached. All stays 
should be securely fastened to the wires so they 
maintain their position in the fence line. 



Fencing wide ravine 



111 



Grounding 

Assuming that an electric fence has been properly 
wired and that an adequate energizer has been 
installed, perhaps 90 percent of electric fence 
failures are due to improper or insufficient 
grounding. Adequate grounding calls for driving 
the equivalent of 22.95 feet (7 meters) of approved 
ground rod or new galvanized 3/4-inch pipe into 
the soil near the energizer. The same results can be 
achieved by driving four 6-foot lengths of rod or 
pipe 5V2 feet deep, spaced 6 feet apart and 
connected to a continuous ground wire from the 
energizer to each rod or pipe. 



Energizer 




Minimum 6' 



Grounding fence. 



If 8-foot lengths are used and driven 7V& feet into 
the earth, only three rods or pipes are needed. 



Energizer 




The same wire used for the fence is satisfactory 
for connecting the ground rods. A ground clamp 
is required for each ground rod connection. 

Ground rods must be driven into the ground near 
the one-piece ground jumper wires in the fence 
line every 1,500 feet for dry areas, 3,000 feet for 
wet areas, at fence ends, corners, and on both sides 
of a gate. The ground rods should be 3/4-inch 
galvanized rods, a minimum of 6 feet long, and 
connected to the ground jumper wire with a 
ground rod clamp. 

For the bottom wire, which can be either a neutral 
wire or a live wire, a moveable tapping device 
must be added to the surplus wire beyond the 
sleeves. 

Switches must be placed at the beginning post and 
the corner post so power can be switched on or 
off the fence lines. 

Ground rods should be driven as close as possible 
to the fence on the side opposite the livestock in 
areas where they will not be damaged by traffic 
or mower blades. They should be located at least 
24 feet from : 

1. any ground rod connected to another 
electrical system 

2. any telephone ground rod 

3. any underground metal piping system 

4. any metal support or other element of a 
structure which rests upon or has been driven into 
the soil 



Energizer 



Live fence wire 

/ Ground-return wire 




1,500' (dry country) 

3,000' (even rainfall country) 



6' (minimum of 24' galvanized 
steel grounding rods) 



Grounding fence with 8-foot grounding rods. 



Grounding fence. 



112 



There are two methods of testing the efficiency 
of the ground system and these tests should be 
conducted under both wet and dry conditions. 

1. Lay steel rods against some of the live wires 
at least 300 feet (100 meters) away from the 
turned off energizer. Come back to the energizer; 
turn it on; place the back of one hand on the 
fartherest grounding rod from the energizer, and 
with arms outstretched to get the maximum dis- 
tance between the hands, work the free hand down 
some vegetation to the soil. If no shock is felt, 
dig that hand firmly into the soil. If there is no 
shock, the ground system is satisfactory. If you 
are shocked, the grounding system is inadequate 
and more ground rods must be added to the 
system 

2. With the energizer turned off, at a distance of 
300 to 400 yards from the energizer, drive a 
temporary ground rod into the soil. Temporarily 
connect one or more of the live wires on the fence 
to this rod. Return to the energizer and turn it 
on. Connect a peak-reading voltmeter to the 
ground rod fartherest from the energizer and 
connect the voltmeter's ground terminal to a metal 
rod or pin driven into the ground. If even a slight 
reading is detected on the voltmeter, additional 
permanent. ground rods are needed on the fence. 
In sandy or rocky soil more grounding may be 
required. 



Finding Faults 

Trouble-shooting to find the reason an electric 
fence has failed or is not operating satisfactorily 
is simply a process of elimination. Whether the 
source of current is a mainline plug-in energizer or 
a battery-powered model, inspection should begin 
with the energizer and its grounding system and 
proceed through progressive segments of the fence 
along its entire line. There are various probable 
causes of electric fence failure. Some are rather 
obvious and easy to find; others are obscure and 
difficult to locate without some means of testing. 
Most of the electrical failures are attributed to : 

1. poor grounding 

2. poor splices 

3. extremely dry conditions 

4. breakdown of insulation (cracked or dirty 
insulators) 

5. loose or corroded connections 

6. radio and telephone interference 

7. electrostatic fields caused by powerlines 
within a 1,000-foot radius of the fence. 

Testing for the most common electric fence faults 
can be done with a few simple and economical 
devices : 




Ground rods 
(add more rods 
if even slight 
reading is 
detected ) 



Temporary grounding 
of live wires 



Voltmeter— (digital or dial)— calibrated in kilovolts 
and accurate to within ± 100 volts. Voltmeters 
test the output voltage of the energizer and the 
effectiveness of its grounding system as well as 
the voltage anywhere along the fence line between 
any live and groun-return wire or the soil. When 
testing a fence powered by one of the super high 
voltage energizers, they may give a high-voltage 
reading even with considerable leakage on the 
fence. Take readings progressively farther away 
from the energizer until a significantly lower 
reading is obtained. At the location of a dead 
short, there will be no reading on the meter, and 
readings beyond the fault, if any, will be 
significantly lower. 



Voltmeter 



Testing grounding system . 



113 



Multi-Bulb Electric Fence Tester— not accurate 
and should be regarded only as indicators of the 
condition of a fence. The same results can be 
obtained with a household light bulb socket 
fitted with insulated alligator clips and a few 
household lightbulbs of 25-, 40-, 60-, and 100-watt 
rating. If there is considerable leakage on a fence, 
even a high-voltage energizer will momentarily 
light a 25- or 40-watt light bulb some distance 
from the energizer. 

Portable Transistor Radioes another effective 
means of locating cracked or arcing insulators. 



Walk the fence line with a small battery-powered 
transistor radio tuned between stations. No sound 
will be heard until it is held near a broken or 
leaking insulator, which will cause an increasingly 
louder click or blip in the radio the closer to the 
fault. Spray faulty insulators with a bright-colored, 
water-soluble, non-metallic paint so they can easily 
be relocated for replacement after switching off 
the current. 

The following table describes the most common 
electric fence faults, the probable causes, and the 
methods for correcting them. 



Common Electric Fence Problems 



Nature of Problem 


Probable Cause 


Method of Correction 


Energizer not on or no voltmeter 


Mainline power outage or blown fuse on 


Check for power outage or blown fuse. 


reading across energizer output 


imput circuit. 


Check energizer "on-off" switch. 


terminals with energizer dis- 


Energizer switched off. 


Recharge or replace batteries. 


connected from fence. 


Dry cell batteries dead, wet cell 


Clean terminals. 




batteries discharged. 


Have energizer serviced. 




Battery terminals corroded. 






Energizer is faulty. 




Energizer on but voltmeter reading is 


Energizer switched to low setting. 


Check energizer output switch. 


low across energizer output terminals 


Weak batteries. Terminals corroded. 


Recharge or replace batteries. 


when disconnected from fence. 




Clean battery terminals. 


Energizer operating but no voltmeter 


Ground-return wire disconnected or 


Check for broken or disconnected ground 


reading on fence with energizer 


broken. 


wire. 


connected. 


Feedwire terminals corroded, 


Check for broken or disconnected or 




disconnected or broken. 


corroded feedwire. 




Broken live wire or ground-return 


Check for broken, corroded, or dis- 




on fence. 


connected live or ground-return wire 




Soil dried out. 


on fence. 

Install ground-return wire. 


Low voltmeter readings at several 


Energizer on low setting or inadequate 


Check high-low setting, or install more 


locations on fence. 


for length of fence. 


powerful unit. 




Weak batteries; terminals corroded. 


Recharge or replace batteries; clean 




Ground system inadequate or 


terminals. 




deteriorated. 


Check ground system for adequacy and 




Soil dried out. 


deterioration. 

Install ground-return wire. 


No voltmeter reading or low reading 


Broken or disconnected fence wire or 


Splice broken wire or remove cause of 


at one location on fence, 


jumper wire. 


short. 




Broken or disconnected ground wire. 


Replace jumper connection. 




Broken or faulty insulators. 


Replace faulty insulators. 




Ground rod deteriorated. 


Repair or replace ground connection rod. 


Voltmeter reading on one wire higher 


Broken or disconnected fence wire 


Splice line wire or replace jumper wire. 


than another or no reading from one 


or jumper wire. 


Replace faulty ground wire. 


live wire to ground-return or soil. 


Broken or disconnected ground wire. 


Replace faulty insulators. 




Broken or faulty insulators. 


Repair or replace ground connection rod. 




Ground rod deteriorated. 




Radio, TV or telephone interference. 


Ground system inadequate. 


Increase grounding capacity. 




Antenna too close to fence. 


Relocate antenna or telephone wires. 




Fence parallel with antenna wires 


De-electrify or relocate segment of 




or telephone lines. 


fence parallel to or too close to 
antenna or wires. 


Energizer not on or no voltmeter 


Mainline power outage or blown fuse on 


Check for power outage or blown fuse. 


reading across energizer output 


input circuit. 


Check energizer "on-off" switch. 


terminals with energizer dis- 


Energizer switched off. 


Recharge or replace batteries. 


connected from fence. 


Dry cell batteries dead, wet cell 


Clean terminals. 




batteries discharged. 


Have energizer serviced. 




Battery terminals corroded. 






Energizer is faulty. 





114 



Electric Gates 

Below are several examples of gates used with 
electric fences: 

One Wire Gate— suitable only for the one-wire 
cattle fence in even rainfall country. 

6" post 

Spring-loaded 
insulating handle 




Flexible 

spring 

connector 




Eye hook 
■ 12-1 6 feet 




Glass radio 
antenna insulator " 



4^. 



—^c-gje. 



Flexible 

spring 

connector 



Electrifying a conventional gate can be easily 
accomplished on either a tubular steel gate, or one 
fabricated of pressure-creosoted lumber. Simply 
attach nonconductive stays vertically with gal- 
vanized U bolts about 2 feet apart across the 
predator side of the gate. Fit one continuous 
strand of high tensile wire back and forth across 
the nonconductive stays from top to bottom and 
secure with wire ties. Feedwires from the fence 
should be covered with insultube and connected 
with flexible spring connectors on the side toward 
which the gate swings. Feedwire for the remainder 
of the fence should be buried underground. 
Burying one or more creosoted posts horizontally 
under the gateway a few inches deep should 
discourage coyotes from digging under the gate. 



\M %k^U 



W plastic pipe 12—24" underground 



One wire gate with detachable 
electrified wire. 



Expandable Spring Gate— a. highly visible electric 
gate. One or more springs may be used, depending 
on the type of livestock being fenced. 



Non-conductive stay 
Insultube 



Horizontal brace 



Steel gate 




Spring-loaded 
insulating handle 



Flexible 

spring 

connector 




--f ....... 



I Eyehook 6" post 

/ Glass radio i s 

r— antenna \ / 
I insulator 

Expandable 
springs 



if* 




«<Sh j 7'"/^ + 



U«5 




Ground rod \ Ground rod 

W plastic pipe 12—24" underground 



^^^rP^^-r^r 



Ground wire 

Live wire 
from energizer ' 



> Sg 



5*r>S^J^ 






^^Pressure-creosoted post ggjl 



Ground wire 
from energizer 



W plastic pipe 
(12" to 24" underground) 



Electrified conventional gate. 



Expandable spring gate. 



115 



Multiple Wire Lift Gate— an offset lift mechanism 
consisting of two pressure-creosoted planks 10 feet 
long x 4 inches wide x V-A inches thick, one 8-foot 
x 4-inch post driven 48 inches, and one 8-foot x 
4-inch post sawed in half to provide the offset 
post and brace. All members are fastened with 
3/4-inch galvanized bolts and a removable 3/4-inch 
galvanized pin to hold the unit upright. Such gates 
would probably be practical only for fences with 
up to six wires, erected on one's own property, 
and used only occasionally for moving from one 
field to another. 



Stiles— if access for people is required from one 
side of an electric fence to the other, an 
old-fashioned stile can be constructed. Since the 
top wire is usually live, remember to thread a 
3-foot length of insultube on it for each stile 
location before tying off and stapling the top wire. 
In some areas it may be necessary to thread 3-foot 
lengths of insultube on all of the charged lines at 
stiles. 

Insultube 





People-access stile. 



Irrigation Break Through Gate— provides an 
opening for a pivot irrigation system. This break- 
through-gate has two flexible whips that open 
into the middle. 



(drawing not to scale) 



Multiple wire lift gate. 

Drive-Thru Gate— fiberglass arms support elect- 
rified streamers that keep livestock from 
getting through. The arms are plastic-coated and 
have rubber tips to prevent scratching vehicles. 
These gates come in two sizes : One is for openings 
of 12 feet to 14 feet and the other for openings 
14 feet to 20 feet. 

Rubber tips 



Irrigation pipe 





Pivot irrigation system gate. 



Electrified streamers 

Drive-through gate. 



116 



Irrigation Break-Over Fence— allows the pivot 
irrigation system to drive over the fence rather 
than travel through an opening. The break-over 
fence must be off-set 30 degrees or more so no 
more than two drive units of the pivot irrigation 
system are on the fence at one time. Place the 
break-over jacks 10 to 20 feet away from the 
cross-over point of the drive units. Towers that 
are farther apart than 130 feet will require a 
48-inch fiberglass line post in the middle. Tension 
springs are needed on each wire to provide the 
needed stretch as the fence is forced down by the 
drive units. At the cross-over point, a short piece 
of high tensile wire is needed to connect the wire 
strands so they do not become separated by wheels 
driving over them. 



Pivot hub 



Heavy duty 
spring 




Pivot system 

Pivot irrigated 
pasture layout. 



24" angle 
iron base *■ 



V 

BREAKOVER 
JACK 



m - P* T~~ 

"^ '" """"" r^r 



Tension springs 
with in-line strainers 



Fiberglass post 




* ^ >i jr »w > « wii * ^"5^" 



;M_^v> aft#§L. — 4^- ~ - - - ^3idf^rL,-^>Wr^v,-. w _«. 



35' 




Irrigation break over fence- 



Electric Flood Gates— are frequently necessary in 
electric high tensile wire fences where they cross 
small streams or wash gaps. 



Plastic insulator 




Flood gate ' i 

controller 

Galvanized chains (+) 



Chains allow debris 
to pass through 



Electric flood gate. 



117 



One design is constructed simply by stringing a 
length of high tensile wire between the line posts 
on each side of the gap and suspending cut panels 
of woven wire fencing weighted with short lengths 
of pressure-creosoted wood. The horizontal wire is 
insulated from the line posts and current is 
supplied by a flexible spring connector to the 
lowest live wire on the fence. When the flood gate 
shorts out from run-off, the flexible spring 
connector must be disconnected or the system 
becomes ineffective. 



In-line wire 
strainer 



Flexible spring 
connector 




Woven wire o '.\ 1 
fencing 



Pressure-creosoted wood 



Electric flood gate. 



Designs 

Wire and Post Spacing 

There are many electric fence designs each with a 
different number of wires and each using slightly 
different construction techniques. The following 
designs are a sample of the most common fences. 
Variance in the wire spacing is from the ground up : 
ground to first wire - 18 to 24 inches; first wire to 
second wire - 24 to 30 inches, etc. A (+) indicates 
a charged wire; a (-) indicates a ground wire; 
an (*) indicates a wire that may be charged or 
neutral. 



ONE-WIRE FOR CATTLE IN AREAS WITH IRRIGATION 
OR 24 OR MORE INCHES OF RAIN ANNUALLY 



2V4" to 3Vi" 




'" I ' '•' ' [ ' •' t * ■ ' ••' •« ' '"' ' ' ■ ''" '"■ ' " " ■ 

I 30" Moist ground 

O L ^ 

[-> Up to 150' (depending on terrain) — »-| 



For a 12-foot or larger gate, a brace should be 
erected. End, gate, and 90° corner posts are 8 
feet long x 6 inches in diameter and are driven 
4 feet into the ground. Line posts are 6% feet long 
x 2V2 inches to 3V2 inches in diameter are driven 30 
inches into the ground. 



118 



TWO-WIRE FOR CATTLE IN AREAS WITH IRRIGATION 
OR 24 OR MORE INCHES OF RAIN ANNUALLY 



1— 2'/4" to 3' 



48" 24" to 36" 



>J 



30" 

Jl 



18" to 24' 



Moist ground 



!";.■> !■■->;■' 



■(+)- 

-(+)- 



1 1". 
1 1 

y 



■ Up to 15'0' (depending on terrain) ■ 



A brace assembly is required for 12-foot or larger 
gates. End, gate, and 90° corner posts are 8 feet 
long x 6 inches in diameter and are driven 4 feet 
into the ground. Line posts are 6 J /2 feet long x 
2Vi to 3 inches in diameter and are driven 30 
inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve posts 
are 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter, and are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. 



TWO-WIRE FOR SHEEP IN DRY AREAS 



2%" to 3' 



48" 



_L 



8" to 10' 



-(+)- 



30" 



,'■- I ' 'i \ ■• -V *■»'-" ' • Vi: -;.»*'.'' ■' ■■•. iT 

'* I ' •-■ ■•' 1 .\--. •••**•••»-.* ' I 

10" 

L 

[*- — Up to 150' (depending on terrain) — -\ 



A brace assembly is required for a 12-foot or 
larger gate. End, gate and 90° corner posts are 
8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter and are driven 
4 feet into the ground. Line posts are &A feet 
long x 2Vi to 3 inches in diameter and are driven 30 
inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve posts 
are 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter and are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. 



TWO WIRE FOR CATTLE IN DRY AREAS 



2%" to 3' 



48" 24" to 36' 



^T 



18" to 24' 



l 30' 

U 1 






(+)- 
(->- 



u 



Up to 150' (depending on terrai 



in) -] 



No brace assembhes are required for most soil 
types. Brace assembly is required for a 12-foot or 
larger gate. End, gate and 90° comer posts are 8 
feet long x 6 inches in diameter and are driven 4 
feet into the ground. Line posts are 6V2 feet x 
2V2 to 3 inches in diameter and are driven 30 
inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve posts 
are 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter and are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. 



TWO-WIRE FOR CATTLE WITH CALVES OR SHEEP 
IN AREAS WITH IRRIGATION OR 24 INCHES OF 
RAIN ANNUALLY 



— ir 



2V2" to 3' 



48" 20" to 30" 



I ! ' •• 

I 30" 

i I 

■J 



X 



8" to 10' 



1 



Moist ground 



Jf 



---( + ) 
— (+) 



1 1 



u 



Up to 150' (depending on terrain) ■ 



A brace assembly is required for 12 foot or longer 
gates. End, gate and 90° corner posts are 8 feet 
long x 6 inches in diameter and are driven 4 feet 
into the ground. Line posts are 6V2 feet long x 
2V2 to 3 inches in diameter and are driven 30 
inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve posts, 
8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 4 
feet into the ground. 



119 



THREE-WIRE FOR CATTLE WITH CALVES 
IN WET OR DRY COUNTRY (SUBDIVISION) 



r 



2V4" to 3" 



34" to 44" 



48" 



11" to 18" 



• : '■.!■• i 
."•■ i I. 
■I i 
i I 
I i 
I I 
v 



23" to 30' 



-(+) 
■(-) 

■(-) 






I i 

30" I ' 
1 v 



• 50' without stays ■ 



150' with stays 50' apart 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° comer posts 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 6V2 
feet long x 2 l A to 3 inches in diameter are driven 
30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve 
posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 
4 feet into the ground. 



THREE-WIRE FOR HORSES IN DRY COUNTRY 



— I f— 2'/s"to 3' 



1 



42" to 47' 



1 12" 



22" to 32" 

t, ., 



-50' without stays 



-150' with stays 50' apart 




A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6V2 feet long x 2V4 to 3 inches in diameter are 
driven 30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. 



THREE-WIRE FOR CATTLE AND HORSES 
IN DRY COUNTRY 

(— 2W to 3" 



46" 



48" 



20" 34" 

r* — rr 



1 '■ - i' •• . 

1 

1 1 



■(+) 

(-) 

-(+) 



30' 



- 50' without stays - 



150' with stays 50' apart 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 6V2 
feet long x 2 x /2 to 3 inches in diameter are driven 
30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve 
posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 
4 feet into the ground. 



FOUR-WIRE FOR SHEEP IN WET OR DRY AREAS 



— 1 r-2'/2" to 3' 




■ (+)- 
■(-)- 



.(+). 



12" to 22"- 



T 



-18" to 30" 






6" to 16" 



30" to 38' 



50' without stays 

150' with stays 50' apart 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6V2 feet long x 2V4 to 3 inches in diameter are 
driven 30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. 

If dry conditions existed, a ground return wire 
would be added 2 to 6 inches below the live wire. 
Nonconductive spacers should be placed between 
these wires to prevent them from touching and 
grounding out the live wire. 



120 



FOUR-WIRE FOR CATTLE AND SHEEP IN 
DRY COUNTRY 



r*2»/ 2 -3' 



(+)■ 



-48' 



ir 

1 1 

V. 



■ (+)■ 



1 



■(-)- 



18" to 24" 



-(-)■ 



30" to 35' 



30" 



'I- 'y-'.W-i-T.-.-i 
12" to 15" 5" to 7' 



I I 
I i 
v 



50' without stays - 



150' with stays 50' apart • 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate, and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6% feet x 2% to 3 inches in diameter are driven 
30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve 
posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 
4 feet into the ground. 



FIVE-WIRE FOR HORSES IN DRY COUNTRY 
—-\ h— 3" to 4" 



56" 



t 



a 



52" to 54" 



32" 42" 

:r~r 



•■■l|. •. \o ■ | ... - »-,.. jj 

|l 

u 



30" I I 12" 22' 

u 



50' without stays ■ 



150' with stays 50' apart 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 6V2 
feet long x 2 l k to 3 inches in diameter are driven 
30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve 
posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 
4 feet into the ground. 



FIVE-WIRE FOR CATTLE WITH CALVES IN 
DRY COUNTRY-SUBDIVISION 



42" 



26" 34' 



:crr 



'J , , t l L^ 



(+) 
•(+) 
-(+) 



y 



10" 18' 



II 
M 

u 



50' without stays- 



150' with stays 50' apart ■ 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 6V2 
feet long x 2 x h to 3 inches in diameter are driven 
30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve 
posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 
4 feet into the ground. The bottom wire is a 
neutral wire. It can be left uncharged or, when 
necessary, tapped onto a charged line. 



FIVE-WIRE FOR SHEEP WITH LAMBS IN 
DRY COUNTRY 



-M r— 2V4" to 3" 



48"' 



nt!: 



35" to 40" 



26" to 30" 



18" to 21" 



-M •-- 



30" 



!l 



_u 



I 6" to 7" 



11" to 13' 



50' without stays 



(-) 

(+) 

(-) 
■(+) 



y - ; TV'-'t : :;v-\-?.;^-:-'.^ r^'-ir' 



150' with stays 50' apart ■* 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6V2 feet long x 2 l A to 3 inches in diameter are 
driven 30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. The bottom wire 
is a neutral wire. It can be left uncharged or, when 
necessary, tapped onto a charged line. 



121 



FIVE-WIRE FOR CATTLE WITH SHEEP 
IN DRY COUNTRY 

— H f— 2W to 3%" 



48" 



r -..,. 



3=t!: : 



. 36" to 44" 



26" to 32" 



18" to 24' 
X 



(-) 

■(+) 

(-) 

■(+) 






30" jj I 12" to 16" 
J_ I I 6" to 10" 



50' without stays 



■150' with stays 50' apart - 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6V4 feet long x 2V& to 3 inches in diameter are 
driven 30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. 



NINE-WIRE FOR HORSE PASTURE 



1 



I— SW to 4" 



57" | 
51" 



46" 

1 41 



36" t 



131" 



26" "I '■" 
21" 
16" 



-(-)- 



(-)■ 



■60" 



■(-)- 



(-)- 



(+) 



-(+) 



"(+) 



-(+) 



-(+) 



30" to 36" 



i I 
I I 

V 



12' to 16' - 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A double- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6V2 feet long x 2V4 to 3 inches in diameter are 
driven 30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. 



SIX-WIRE FOR HORSES, CATTLE, AND SHEEP 
IN DRY COUNTRY-BOUNDARY 



"1 



3" to 4' 



fl=i 



36" to 46" f~ 



48' 



28" to 32" I 



21" to 24" f , 



15" to 17" 



30" 



1 1 
1 1 

I ! 



_v 



10" to ll"- 1 



-33' without stays 



*T-r 



5" I 



'v 1 



— 100' with stays 33 1/3' apart — - 



*Bottom wire is neutral 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 
6V4 feet long x %% to 3 inches in diameter are 
driven 30 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are 
driven 4 feet into the ground. The bottom wire 
is a neutral wire. It can be left uncharged or, 
when necessary, tapped onto a charged line. 



The following illustrations are examples of the 
visual barrier electric fence. The posts used are 
either short treated 2 x 2's with insulators or 
fiberglass posts which are cut in half. 

For sheep, two 12% gauge, high tensile wires run in 
a parallel line 24 inches apart and 12 inches off the 
ground. Either of the two designs shown below 
seems to work well. 




122 



For cattle, three 12% gauge, high tensile wires are 
needed. Several designs are available, but the 
normal configuration for the bottom two wires 
is the same as for the sheep fence with the third 
wire running halfway between them 36 inches 
high. Three designs are shown: 






ANTI-DEER TWO FENCE DESIGN 



Crops, orchard, 
pasture, etc. 



Hi-tensile 
12VSi gauge wire 




Fiberglass posts 



Two-strand inner fence 
can be two offset wires 
on existing barbed or 
net wire fence using 
offset brackets 



12' to 20' clearing 
in front of fence is 
very important 

Outer fence might require 

12" height or two wires 

(12" and 24") for 

smaller deer 



Crop side 

Line post 
every 120' 



Batten every 30' 




Deer side 



Deer side 




'.•■.•.•* •■-. °, • : ■ j. ;.' 
. - • " .,.- • - •••? i 

orntent.inn I 



Crop side 



I 1 

V_ 



I 20" 



For short term deer protection, 
replace the 5-strands with a single 
wire placed 25" to 30" high 

i i 

Use a double-span or equivalent brace assembly; or 
use a single-span or equivalent brace assembly that 
has 10 feet between the brace posts at fence ends, 
gates and 90° comers. End, gate and 90° comer 
posts are 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter and are 
driven 48 inches into the ground. Rise and dip 
posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter are driven 
48 inches into the ground. Line posts, 1-5/8 inches 
x 1-3/4 inches x 5 feet long are driven 20 inches 
into the ground. Self-insulating stays are spaced 
every 30 feet. 



123 



ANTI-DEER SLANTED ELECTRIC FENCE DESIGN 



7' long line rail 



Deer side 



7-WIRE ELECTRIC FENCE 
Side view 



Crop side 




NON-ELECTRIC FENCE 
Side view 



2" hexagonal mesh 
wire netting 




7-STRAND ELECTRIC DEER FENCE SWING CORNER 



TOP VIEW 



Swing wires. Each is 14" 
longer than the one above 



Corner post 



6" dia. x 8' long 
corner post 




Brace is not 
shown for clarity 



Space wires 
7 apart 



4" dia. x 1W to 10' 
galvanized tubing or 
wood brace 




SIDE VIEW 



Insulators, 
porcelain type O or 
polypropylene type W 



Use a double-span or equivalent brace assembly ; or 
use a single-span or equivalent brace assembly that 
has 10 feet between the brace posts at fence ends, 
gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 90° corner 
posts, 7 feet long x 6 inches in diameter are driven 
48 inches into the ground. Rise and dip posts, 8 
feet long x 6 inches in diameter are driven 48 
inches into the ground. Line posts, 1-5/8 inches x 
1-3/4 inches x 5 feet long are driven 18 inches into 
the ground. Self-insulating stays, l A inch x l l A 
inches x 7 feet long are spaced every 30 feet. Line 
rails, 1 inch x 3 inches x 7 feet long are bolted to 
line posts with a 3/8 inch x 3 inch carriage bolt. 



124 



EIGHT-WIRE FOR ROUGH TERRAIN COYOTE-DETERRENT FENCE 



42' 



30 " K m 

22" | *-; 



16' 



'••".V 



12' 



r 



"f 



■(+)■ 



-(-)- 



.(+). 



■(-)- 



(+)■ 



■(-)- 



(+)• 



= (-): 



48" 



4" | I Ground level 



f.< 



30" 



y 



5 I 
V. 



33' without stays - 

_ 66' with a stay 
Vi way between 



Insulator 




Channel profile 



One-inch poultry netting attached to bottom ground 
wire and anchored on downstream side with stones 



Downstream 



A double-span or equivalent brace assembly is 
required at fence ends, gates, and 90° comers. 
End, gate and 90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 
inches in diameter are driven 4 feet into the 
ground. Line posts, 6V2 feet long x 2Vi to 3 inches 
in diameter are driven 30 inches into the ground. 
Dip, rise, and curve posts are 8 feet long x 4 inches 
in diameter, with a 2 inch x 4 inch x 8 inch block 
nailed near the base for increased holding capacity. 
Fiberglass and insultimber posts are best used for 
stays and for posts on relatively level terrain. 



Steel "T" posts have more application in rough 
terrain because they are: not easily pulled out of 
depressions, not easily bent over under tension, 
and can be driven where fiberglass and insultimber 
posts cannot. The bottom wire should always be 
a ground wire because a charged wire is easily 
grounded out. One-inch poultry netting is the 
best protection for crossing channels. The apron of 
the netting must be on the downstream side so it 
will swing out freely during heavy water flow. 



125 



EIGHT-WIRE PREDATOR 

PROTECTION FENCE 



44" to 46" 1 
36" to 38 



Li 



rr^ 



28" to 31 



23" to 25" 
J_l 



t ■ , . ; •'. 



17" to 19" ' 

12" to 14"— ' 

7" to 9" - 



A double-span or equivalent brace assembly is 
required at fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. 
End, gate and 90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 
inches in diameter are driven 4 feet into the 
ground. Line posts, 6V2 feet long x 2V6 to 3 inches 
in diameter are driven 30 inches into the ground. 
Dip, rise, and curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in 
diameter, with 2 inch, x 4 inch x 8 inch blocks are 
nailed near the base for increased holding capacity. 
Fiberglass and insultimber posts are best used for 
stays and for posts on relatively level terrain. 



■ A 



■ 2V4" to 3W 



(+) 



(-)■ 



■(+)■ 



(+)■ 



.(-). 



.(+). 



■(-)■ 



— » . : . . (-)= 



1 1 

y 



2" to 4" 



48" 



30' 



33' without stays 



66' with a stay 

V% way between 

Steel "T" posts have more application in rough 
terrain because they are : not easily pulled out of 
depressions, not easily bent over under tension, 
and can be driven where fiberglass and insultimber 
posts cannot. The bottom wire should always be a 
ground wire because a charged wire is easily 
grounded out. One-inch poultry netting is the best 
protection for crossing channels. The apron of the 
netting must be on the downstream side so it will 
swing out freely during heavy water flow. 



TEN-WIRE PREDATOR 
PROTECTION FENCE 




A double-span or equivalent brace assembly is 
required at fence ends, gates, and 90° comers. 
End, gate, and 90 corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 
inches in diameter are driven 4 feet into the 
ground. Line posts, 6V2 feet long x 2V6 to 3 inches 
in diameter are driven 30 inches into the ground. 
Dip, rise, and curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches 
in diameter, with 2 inch x 4 inch x 8 inch blocks 
are nailed near the base for increased holding 
capacity. Fiberglass and insultimber posts are best 
used for stays and for posts on relatively level 



terrain. Steel "T" posts have more application in 
rough terrain because they are: not easily pulled 
out of depressions, not easily bent over under 
tension, and can be driven where fiberglass and 
insultimber posts cannot. The bottom wire should 
always be a ground wire because a charged wire is 
easily grounded out. One-inch poultry netting is 
the best protection for crossing channels. The 
apron of the netting must be on the downstream 
side so it will swing out freely during heavy water 
flow. 



126 



ELEVEN-WIRE ANTI-COYQTE FENCE 



60" 



52 



r ! 



-r 

44" 



36 



29" \ 



23"*f 



i7" r 



i i2"r 



■ 3" to 4' 
-( + ) 

■(-) 

-( + ) 



-(-)- 
-( + )- 

-(-)■ 
( + )- 



i-!-W-(+) 



rnr 



6 , 1 

V 4" 



_<+). 



M— J L= L- 

■ < > .■.»" ^ . • / <= 

t ■ i ** * A * 



! ■• o 

I o ■ 



36" 



II 

| I 

i i 

I! 



Trip wire on back of posts 



"f^ 






U 



33'4" without stays 



100' with stays 33'4" apart 



A double-span or equivalent brace assembly is 
required at fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, 
gate, and 90° comer posts, 10 feet long x 6 inches 
in diameter are driven 58 inches into the ground. 
Line posts, 8 feet long x 3 inches to 4 inches in 
diameter are driven 34 inches into the ground. Dip, 
rise, and curve posts, 10 feet long x 4 inches in 
diameter are driven 58 inches into the ground. 
Fiberglass and insultimber posts are best used for 
stays and for posts on relatively level terrain. 



Steel "T" posts have more application in rough 
terrain because they are : not easily pulled out of 
depressions, not easily bent over under tension, 
and can be driven where fiberglass and insultimber 
posts cannot. The bottom wire should always be a 
ground wire because a charged wire is easily 
grounded out. One-inch poultry netting is the best 
protection for crossing channels. The apron of the 
netting must be on the downstream side so it will 
swing out freely during heavy water flow. 



127 



TWELVE-WIRE WITH TRIP WIRE: ANTI-COYOTE FENCE 



Fiberglass line post 



6" spacing 



4" spacing 




Trip wire 



Steel "T" posts may perform better 
in rough terrain 



A double-span or equivalent brace assembly at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 10 feet long x 6 inches in 
diameter are driven 58 inches into the ground. 
Line posts, 8 feet long x 3 inches to 4 inches in 
diameter are driven 34 inches into the ground. Dip, 
rise, and curve posts, 10 feet long x 4 inches in 
diameter are driven 58 inches into the ground. 
Fiberglass and insultimber posts are best used for 
stays and for posts on relatively level terrain. Steel 



"T" posts have more application in rough terrain 
because they are: not easily pulled out of 
depressions, not easily bent over under tension, 
and can be driven where fiberglass and insultimber 
types cannot. The bottom wire should always be 
a ground wire because a charged wire is easily 
grounded out. One inch poultry netting is the best 
protection for crossing channels. The apron of the 
netting must be on the downstream side so it will 
swing out freely during heavy water flow. 



128 



FIFTEEN-WIRE WILDLIFE EXCLOSURE 




-(+) 
-( + ) 

-( + ) 



— ( + ) 

— < + ) 
— (+) 

— (+) 

( + ) 



'.' i '-'V 



100' with fiberglass stays ■ 
16%' apart 



A double-span or equivalent brace assembly at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 12 feet long x 6 inches in 
diameter are driven 46 inches into the ground. 
Line posts, 12 feet long x 6 inches in diameter are 
driven 46 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and 
curve posts, 12 feet long x 6 inches in diameter, 



with 2 inch x 4 inch x 8 inch blocks are nailed 
near the bases for increased holding capacity 
and buried 46 inches into the ground. Fiberglass 
stays are used on IBM foot centers. The bottom 
wire should always be a ground wire because a 
charged wire is easily grounded out. 



PROTECTING AREAS FROM BEARS 

In wet areas, where the ground has enough 
moisture to carry the charge back to the ground 
rods and the earth terminal on the energizer, no 
ground return wires are needed. The following 
suggestion is one design which has been used; other 
designs are also effective. 



A single-span or equivalent brace assembly is 
required at fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. 
End, gate and 90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 
inches in diameter are driven 4 feet into the 
ground. Line posts, 8 feet long x 2Vz to 3 inches 
in diameter are driven 36 inches into the ground 
Dip, rise, and curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in 
diameter are driven 4 feet into the ground. 



58" ~T 

46" 



34" J - 
22" 



10" ' 



■(+)- 
■(+)- 
■(+)- 
-(+)■ 
■(+)- 



2y2"to 3" 



S&. 



60" 






I, 

H 

lr 

U 



"* Moist soil 



■150' with stays 50' apart 



H 
I' 

|l 



36' 



129 



BEAR FENCE 



l"(typ) 



2W' to 3' 




DETAIL 



plastic pipe 



In dry areas, ground-return wires need to be est- 
ablished with the charged lines to provide a con- 
ductor to carry the charge back to the earth ter- 
minal on the energizer. Because this design places 
the live and ground wires in close proximity, a 
separator must be placed between them about 
every 10 feet or so. A 1-inch plastic hose holds 
the live and ground wires apart and a plastic tie 
binds them together. This design should provide 
a good positive shock as soon as the bear touches 



A single-span or equivalent brace assembly is 
required at fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. 
End, gate and 90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 
inches in diameter are driven 4 feet into the 
ground. Line posts, 8 feet long x 2Vn to 3 inches 
in diameter are driven 36 inches into the ground 
Dip, rise, and curve posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in 
diameter are driven 4 feet into the ground. 



BEAR FENCE 



— H H — 2y 2 "to 3" 




Wire mesh connected to the 
ground terminal on the energizer 



Another dry area design is one that uses all live 
wires on the fence and a ground trip wire. Estab- 
lishing the correct position for the trip wire so the 
bear contacts it any time live wires are touched is 
important. If the correct position for a single trip 
wire is hard to establish, a wire mesh can be placed 
on the ground and connected to the earth terminal 
of the energizer to provide a wide-base ground for 
the bear to stand on when touching the live wires. 



A good fence on even or uneven terrain. A single- 
span or equivalent brace assembly is required at 
fence ends, gates, and 90° corners. End, gate and 
90° corner posts, 8 feet long x 6 inches in diameter 
are driven 4 feet into the ground. Line posts, 8 
feet long x 2 l fa to 3 inches in diameter are driven 
36 inches into the ground. Dip, rise, and curve 
posts, 8 feet long x 4 inches in diameter are driven 
4 feet into the ground. 



130 



Training Animals to Electric Fences 

All animals must be trained to respect electric 
fences. Animals should be put into an electric 
fence enclosure located inside a stock-proof fence 
and encouraged to approach the fence by placing 
food just out of their reach on the other side of 
the electric fence. Cans coated with molasses and 
hung on the charged lines will also lure the animals 
to touch the charged lines. Animals are shocked on 
their nose or face and learn quickly to relate the 
shock with the fence wire. Sheep should be trained 
just after they have been shorn or they should be 
sprayed with water so their wool acts as a 
conductor and allows them to receive an effective 
shock when they touch a live wire. Sheep are 
particularly aggressive in trying to escape and are 
stubborn in their attempts to be free. Cattle have 
been effectively trained in 1 day and sheep in 1 
week. 

Wildlife also need training to respect electric 
fences. Since they are not in controlled conditions, 
electric fences designed to repel them must be 
soundly constructed. Live wires may be baited to 
attract wildlife so an effective shock is given on 
their first contact with the fence. 



Electrifying Existing Fences 

One of the most common temporary fences is to 
electrify already existing fences. If wires are not 
rusted at the appropriate levels, they can be 
attached to insulators, reattached to the posts, and 
electrified. If the wires are rusted, they should not 
be electrified because rust increases the amount of 
resistance in the wire. A less expensive, but very 
effective improvement would be to electrify the 
top wire only. 

If an old fence line is improved by repairing the 
broken, rotten, or loose posts and tightening the 
wires, it can also become more formidable with the 
addition of off-set brackets. These off-set brackets 
will hold the electric wire away so animals cannot 
rub against the fence. The spacing of the brackets 
ranges from 35 to 130 feet. The shorter the 
distance between the brackets, the greater the 
support given to the wire. Closer bracket spacing 
decreases the slack in the electrified lines, which 
reduces the chances of shorting the live wires out 
on the old fence. 

As in any electric fence, the head of the animal 
should be the target area. In dry conditions, a 
lower off -set bracket should be established to hold 
a ground wire so that a positive ground is provided. 



Temporary Electric Fences 

Temporary electric fences provide temporary 
pastures, strip grazing, exclude animals from over- 
grazed or eroded areas, protect reclaimed areas, 
allow sprayed areas to recover, restrict stock 
movement in wilderness areas, keep deer, elk, and 
moose out of hay stacks, and keep bears away 
from beehives, camps, or cabins. 

Temporary electric fences can : 

1. Reduce the amount of permanent fence 
needed 

2. Lower construction costs 

3. Adapt to a variety of conditions and purposes 

4. Be cheaper and easier to maintain 

5. Improve operating efficiency and 

6. Be easily moved or removed. 



The key to temporary electric fencing is keeping 
materials to a minimum to reduce the chances of 
losing power through leakage and to keep the fence 
portable. Wood line posts may be desirable. A 
regular 6Vfc-foot x 4-inch treated wooden post is 
recommended for these sites. Wood posts are 
durable and easy to insulate, but take longer to 
install and are not as portable as other post types. 
Steel posts are easier to install than wood posts and 
are more portable, but are more difficult to 
insulate. Insulators should be either porcelain or 
high strain, ultraviolet-resistant plastic and they 
should provide resistance to arcing or other leakage 
of the current to the post. 

Fiberglass and plastic posts are probably most 
suitable for electric fences. Posts should be spaced 
as far apart as possible while maintaining the 
desired wire height. Post spacing may range from 
16 feet to 180 feet, depending on the terrain, 
tension applied to the wire, type of animal to be 
controlled, and availability of food and water. The 
wider spacings may require stays to keep the wires 
at the proper levels. 

Wire, twine, and ribbon spacing is the same as for 
permanent electric fence. In areas that receive 
adequate moisture during the seasons of use 
(either through rainfall or irrigation), only one 
energized wire may be needed to control trained 
animals such as cattle and horses. 



131 



If dry conditions exist during the seasons of use 
a two- or more wire fence is needed. Normally 
the top wire will be energized and the bottom wire 
will be the ground return wire. Because the ground 
does not contain sufficient moisture to carry the 
current back to the energizer when an animal 
touches the live wire, a ground wire is necessary to 
provide this return of current and shock the 
animal. Be certain that the energized wire is 
properly insulated and all grounding potentials 
are removed from the fence line. 

A rough estimate used for figuring the live wire 
height is one-half to two-thirds of the average 
height of the animals's shoulders. Therefore, if 
the average height of confined horses is 58 inches, 
the live wire height would be 38 inches. In areas 
with moist ground during the seasons of use, a 
single strand fence for these horses would work. 



_^ 



(-)• 



2" to 6" 



16' to 180' 



*£_ 



30" to 40" 



If dry conditions exist, a ground return wire would 
be added to this design. There are two ways to do 
this: 

A ground wire may be added 2 to 6 inches below 
each live wire, 



^ 



<-(+ 



(+)- 



i 



■(-)- 



2" to 6 



■(+)• 



3 



•(-)- 



is. 



16' to 180' 






27" to 36' 
_ (cattle) 

l 



18" to 24' 
(calves) 

Mr J 



Dry ground 

or, one ground wire may be added half way 
between the two live wires. 



Ll 



1 - 



■(+) 



1 

(_) L Half way ■ 



n 



■(+)■ 



(=) 

_L 



16' to 180' 



JL. 



_i. 



' , Dry ground 



For cattle the same one-half to two-thirds of the 
average animal shoulder height is used to estimate 
the height of the top live wire. If calves are present, 
and the ground contains enough moisture to carry 
the electric current back to the ground rod and the 
earth terminal of the energizer, another live wire 
height should be estimated for the calves. In any 
situation, where the average animal shoulder 
height is broken into two different distinct levels, 
live wire heights should be figured out for each. 



Several temporary electric fence designs for sheep 
are shown. These should be modified to fit into 
specific terrain, ground conditions, type of sheep, 
age of sheep (adult or adult with lambs); or even to 
accommodate a problem animal in the flock. 

If the ground is moist during the seasons of use, 
either from precipitation or irrigation, a two-wire 
fence may be used with both wires energized. 



■(+)■ 



-(+)- 



16' to 180' 



1" 27" to 36" 

cattle 

18" to 24" 
calves 

-_! 



'i ° ••; 




Moist ground 



Moist ground 



132 



A three-wire fence provides better control for 
sheep in both moist and dry ground conditions. 
In moist conditions, all three wires are charged. In 
dry conditions, the wires may be charged in two 
ways: the top and bottom wire are charged and the 
middle wire is grounded; or the middle wire is 
charged and the top and bottom wires are 
grounded. 

(1) Moist ^(2) Dry 

(3) Dry 



j(+)](-Of(-)[ ' 



\ ! 



-+(+){(+)t(-)i- 



i i 



16' to 180' 



T 



20" to 28" 



T 1 

_LlO"to 13" 

Bft L J 



f 



t ,- /- o - 

5" to 7" 



Dry or moist ground 



A fourth wire may be added to prohibit sheep 
from jumping over low fences. Electroplastic 
netting is also available for temporary fencing for 
sheep . 



-^L 



1= 



16' to 180' 



■ 



-(+)- 
■(-)- 
-(+)■ 



F 

(-)-*- 13' 
i 



35" 



23' 



o ■ ■ I ■ •> 

' Dry ground 



Temporary electric fencing is also used to keep 
wildlife from getting into unwanted areas like 
hay stacks. The only completely effective 
enclosure is a permanent electric fence. Temporary 
fences, however, can be 90 percent effective. 

Poles with insulators, 2 x 4's drilled and fitted with 
insultube insulator, or fiberglass rods leaned against 
a hay stack are an easy design that gives an angled 
barrier. This design places the electric fence close 
to the hay and discourages jumping the fence. 
Since the wires lean out at the bottom, the 
animal's lower body contacts the ground wires. 
The number and placement of the wires must be 
varied to fit the needs of the site. Snow depth of 
24 inches requires higher placement of the ground 
and live wires than areas with no snow. The 
bottom wire should always be close enough to the 
ground to prevent animals from crawling under the 



fence. Place a live/ground wire set at a height where 
a crawling animal will contact with it. This 
live/ground set is made of a 1-inch plastic hose 
^-inch inside diameter ID and a plastic tie, which 
can be purchased at most parts shops. 




Plastic tie 



The following designs are examples that should be 
modified to fit specific site conditions: 



These can be 
dummy wires 




Hay bales, etc. 




Bottom wire is negative (— ), 
alternate positive (+ ) and 
negative (— ) to top 



133 



Rebar can be used for posts. It is comparatively 
light and, if pointed, is easily driven into most 
soil types. The same attention given to insulators 
for steel posts must be given here. 



Small diameter fiberglass posts have attachments to 
hold the wire. Some of these attachments are 
shown below: 




Tie wire 



Insulator 



Rebar post 




Rods and posts constructed of fiberglass are good 
for tempoarary electric, fences. They are 
lightweight, strong, flexible, and nonconductive. 
Wires can be directly attached to them. They come 
in various sizes and weights. The rods of the 
T-shaped posts may either be notched or have 
holes drilled in them at the desired wire spacings 
for secure attachments of the wire strands. These 
posts do not stand up to fire well. 



A tie can be made from 12V& or 9 gauge wire. 
Wrap the wire around a Vi-inch rod to form an eye 
that will fit over a fiberglass post. 








Notched rods or T posts may use spring clips or 
wire ties to attach the wire. 




Fiberglass rods and posts. 




134 



A walking fence post allows fast and easy fence 
movement in strip grazing pastures up to 600 feet 
wide. The star-like posts are normally spaced 50 
feet apart. An electrical wire runs through the 
center hub, the bottom two legs are always dead, 
and the top four legs are always live to deter 
livestock from rubbing on them. 



Top four legs are 



Bottom two legs are "dead 




Electric fence 




Visual barrier electric fence allows vegetation 
(preferably grass) to grow up between the wires 
and form a visual barrier to the animals. This 
visual barrier is complemented by the psycho- 
logical barrier provided by the electric wires. The 
advantages of this fence are : 

1. It is economical 

2. It is easily constructed 

3. It doesnot need brace assemblies. 

The disadvantages are : 

1. It is not easily moved 

2. All of the wires must be charged 

3. It does not provide an adequate shock in 
dry conditions 

4. The visual barrier will not grow up during 
dry conditions 

5. Animals will run through it under pressure. 



Because of these disadvantages, this fence design 
has not been widely accepted. It should only be 
used where adequate moisture provides adequate 
growth for a visual barrier and provides soil 
moisture levels for good grounding. 



135 



Tools 






1/2" ELECTRIC DRILL 



HAND BRACE AND BIT 
3/8" x 8" drill bits 



10-INCH 

ADJUSTABLE 

WRENCH 



NOTCHED 
MARKING 
STICK 




50' CLOTH RULE 
or steel tape 



^r 3 



CLAW HAMMER 



PLUMB BOB 



ft 



WIRE TWISTING TOOL 




NICOPRESS FENCING TOOL 
with sleeve crimper wire cutter 
and staple puller 




CHAINSAW 



136 





WIRE PAYOUT REEL 
(Spinning Jenny) 




IN-WIRE STRAINERS 



NICOPRESS SLEEVE 



1== ' ■WtflMMaMMriKB 




n « 



TENSION TESTER 





TENSION INDICATOR SPRING 




WIRE VICE 



1 3/4" STAPLES 



RELIABLE WIRELINK 



GROUND ROD CLAMP 



NICOTAP SLEEVES 




c 



D 



6' x 5/8" GALVANIZED STEEL ROD 
(ground rod for lightning protection) 



When constructing long fences the following tools 
will help reduce construction time. 




TRACTOR-MOUNTED 
HOLE AUGER 




TRACTOR-MOUNTED 
POST DRIVER 



JEJZK. 



£ 



w. 



IN-LINE STRAINER 
TENSIONING HANDLES 




MULTI-REELED WIRE 
PAYOUT MECHANISM 



137 







Wire is the most common fence material. 



138 



Wire Fences 

Wire is divided into three major categories: Smooth 
high tensile wire, barbed wire, and woven wire. 
In general, wire is the most commonly used 
material for constructing fences. Wire fences are 
an effective deterrent but are moderately expensive 
to build and maintain. Specialty fences for exclud- 
ing wildlife, crossing gaps, etc. are also discussed. 



Smooth Wire 

High tensile wire fences have some definite ad- 
vantages over barbed wire : 

1. Lower maintenance costs 

2. Greater durability 

3. No barb damage to animals. 

New Zealand pioneered the use of high tensile 
wire. 

Better quality braces are needed for high tensile 
wire fences than for those used with conventional 
barbed wire. Because high tensile wire lasts longer, 
stress continues on the braces many years after the 
construction is completed. 

For high tensile wire fencing, round pressure- 
treated wood posts work best. The higher the 
fence, the deeper the post must be set. In line 
fence posts should be: 



The wire itself is the unique difference in this 
fencing design. High tensile wire exceeds 100,000 
psi breaking strength. Twelve-and-a-half gauge 
wire has been found most effective at the least 
cost. All high tensile wires have Class III zinc 
coating. 

There are various manufacturers of high tensile 
wire. The American Society for Testing Materials 
has graded metallic coated high tensile steel fence 
wire as follows : 



Metallic Coated High Tensile Wire 



Grade 


Minimum 
Tensile 
Strength 

Lb/in 2 (psi) 


Minimum 
Breaking Point 

Lb of direct pull 
for 12% gauge 




135 


135,000 


1,039 


180 


180,000 


1,386 


200 


200,000 


1,540 


220 

. 


220,000 


1,694 

— M,, — , 



In-line Fence Posts 





Size 

Length by 
diame ter 


Depth 

Inches 


Post Spacing 
Feet 


Livestock 


6 ft 6 in x 4 in 


30 


60 


Range 


6 ft 6 in x 4 in 


30 


16 


Horse 


8 ft x 4 in 


36 


12 


Corral 


8 ft x 4 in 


42 


10 


Rise or dip 
post 


8 ft x 4 in 


48 


Varies 



For wire with 200,000 psi or above, a 
340-pound-per strand of wire tension is 
recommended. For wire below 200,000 psi, a 
250-pound-per-strand of wire tension is 
recommended. Some fence builders simply take 
the slack out of the wire rather than measure 
tensions. Wire tension is measured with the use of a 
tension meter, a manufacturered tension spring, 
or a tension handle with a pre-set 'click over' 
tension indicator. 

Wire fences should be inspected periodically to 
prevent problems. Burning weeds under wire fence 
can damage both the posts and the galvanized 
coating on the wire. Keep high tensile wires tight- 
ened to the recommended pounds of tension. In 
areas with extreme temperature changes, reduce 
the tension on the wires at the onset of cold 
weather and restore it to the correct tension in 
the spring. 



139 



CORRAL ON LEVEL TERRAIN 



v n 
it 
II 

E ! 

u 



'II 



!i 



n 
ti 
ii 
i 

V 



4' 6' 



3' 6' 



10' 



10' 



1. Use wire, fiberglass, or wooden stays. 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground. 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire for 
straight-grooved wooden or fiberglass stays. 

4. Post spacing may be increased up to 60 feet 
if stays are used with 5-foot spacing. 



.sai 



11.2--: 
' 1. 1 'v 

II 



HORSE FENCE 



I '--• 



u 




12' 



1. Double-span brace assemblies are required 
at all end, gate, and 90° comer locations. 

2. A pilot hole may be needed to lower the 
height of the post so it will fit under the raised ram 
of the post driver. 



PASTURE ON LEVEL TERRAIN 



12' 



12' 



.."I 



Wire, fiberglass, 
or wooden stays 



ii = 
H 




2' 6" 



1. Use wire, fiberglass, or wooden stays. 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground. 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire for 
straight-grooved wooden or fiberglass stays. 



RANGE ON LEVEL TERRAIN 



JS8 



it 



_^J£ 



4' 



M 



II 2'6' 

U L 



16' 



16'- 



1. Post spacing may be 60 feet if stays are used 
with 15-foot spacings between posts. 

2. In areas of light use, post spacing may be 
100 feet if stays are used with 20-foot spacings 
between posts. 

3. Use wire, fiberglass, or wooden stays. 

4. Stays do not rest solidly on the ground. They 
must be free to move. 

5. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire for 
straight-grooved wooden or fiberglass stays. 



140 



Wire spacing for high tensile smooth wire should 
be: 



FEEDLOT 10-STRAND FENCE 



















1 










: 

1 [ 




~~^^fr 5 






1 










■ 






52" 
















j 


**. 








1 


■«*. 


^*>4" 








^r 




^ 


' 


'<f- 


— 10" 


• 


'<> . • 




•S", 


K : '"'^"' j * 


«"-■'.'•''•>"* 



5" 



HORSE 12-STRAND FENCE 
ft 




A VARIETY OF TYPES AND AGES 
OF LIVESTOCK 10-STRAND FENCE 




RANGE 8-STRAND BOUNDARY FENCE 

-H 8" 

7" 




RANGE 6-STRAND DIVISION FENCE 




141 



Barbed Wire 

Common barbed wire is the most common fencing 
wire. Barbed wire ranges from 15V2 to 12V2 gauge. 
Usually 12V2 gauge, Class 1, zinc-coated wire with a 
breaking strength of 950 pounds or 70,000 psi is 
used. Wires have a variety of spacings between 
barbs. Barbed wire is long-lasting and moderately 
expensive to install and maintain. It has one 
major disadvantage— the barbs can cause injury. 



Relative Strength of Barbed Wire 


Gauge No. 


Relative strength 


12V4 

13 J / 2 H.T.* 
14 
15% H.T.* 


1.0** 
1.1 
0.6 
1.0 


♦High Tensile strength wire. 
**12% gauge used as the standard. 



5" 



12% ga. 



12%ga.~- 



12% ga.— 



14 ga. barbs 



COMMON BARBED WIRES 





12% ga. 



14 ga. 



15% ga. 




15% barbs 



Kinds of Barbed Wire Available 



Line Wire 
Gauge 

12V2 

13% H.T.* 
14 

im 

12% 

12% 
13% H.T.* 
15% H.T.* 





No 




Wire 


Spacing 


Shape 


Points 


Gauge 


(inches) 


half round 




2 


14 


4 


round 




2 


14 


4 


round 




2 


14 


4 


round 




2 


16 


4 


flat 




2 


12% 


4 


round 




4 


14 


5 


half round 




4 


14 


5 


round 




4 


14 


5 


round 




4 


16 


5 



Wraps on 
Line Wire 



1 
2 
2 
2 
1 

2** 

1 

2** 

2** 



*High tensile strength wire. 
**Wrapped around both strands; interlocked with one barb projecting between the strands. 



Approx. 
wt. 80 rd. 

76 
80 
64 
52 
77 

88 
83 

71 

41 



142 



Life Expectancy for Class 1 Galvanized Barbed Wire 



Wire 
Size 

9 
11 
12V4 

14V 2 


Dry 

15 
11 
11 

7 


Years Till Rust Appears 

Climatic condition 

Coastal & 
Humid industrial 

8 3 
6 2 
6 2 

5 1.5 


Years After Rust Appears Until 
Wire Reaches Half Strength 

Climatic condition 

Coastal & 
Dry Humid industrial 


50+ 50+ 25 
50+ 50 16 
50+ 35 12 
50 20 7 



Common Barbed Wires 

Border fences probably should be constructed of 
at least four strands of barbed wire to effectively 
control livestock. Fences inside management 
units can be constructed of three strands of barbed 
wire to reduce cost. 




Common barbed wire fences. 



143 



Gaucho wire is an alternative to conventional 
barbed wire. Its smaller size (15V6 gauge) gives the 
Gaucho a lighter weight, which produces less 
structural strain. The Gaucho 's high tensile 
strength has the same minimum breaking strength 
(950 lb) as conventional barbed wire. Gaucho wire 
is Class 3, zinc coated. It has approximately a 
12-year rust-free life compared to a 5 -year rust-free 
life for conventional barbed wire. However, its 
expected useful life after rusting is only 3 years 
compared to 7 years for conventional barbed wire. 
Because of its high tensile strength the Gaucho 
wire has less sag in the fence line and only 300 
pounds of tension is needed. Gaucho wire is 
spliced using either the telephone splice or com- 
pression sleeves. Its stiffness may make it more 
difficult to work with than conventional barbed 
wire. Retail costs are approximately 20 to 25 
percent less than conventional barbed wire. 



Wire Spacing 



CATTLE ONLY 



— * — 




-* — £— 

10" 


» 


^ 
:/ 


9" 


* 


'i 


9" 


as ii Ss ■ 






4-WIRE (boundary) 




11" 



11" 



20" 



3-WIRE (drift) 



The intended use of the fence determines wire 
spacing. 



51" 



MOST COMMON WIRE SPACING 



6-WIRE 



10" 



10" 



10" 



16" 



*££, 



- • ■ - 

4-WIRE 





w 


' ? 




„ 


. 


i ~*~ 


1 




8" 






. 


8" 








8" 


5 


4" "** 


i 1 

i 




8" 






{ 


8" 










12" 




' & 




fe 





54" 



_=S 



I 



10' 



10" 



10" 



10" 



k. 



12" 



51" 



5-WIRE 



^ 



16' 



16' 



16' 



**? 



3-WIRE 



SHEEP ONLY 


T 


li fl 




j 10" 

\ t it . 


1 
1 


] ■ r 


, > 


; 7 „ 
* t ... 


" ! 


\ .. . 6" 


r 1 


14* •*- B _ 


#5 . » ° 


5-WIRE 



CATTLE AND SHEEP 









. 


; 


14" 




. v 

i i" 

I 1 


10" 




■" 


7" 




| I 


6" 


-_sa 


■ ' 


5" 






8" 



5-WIRE 



144 



..;■ '■.:■■:.. ■■ ,.■■ ■ . . 



HEAVY SNOW WITH LEVEL TOPOGRAPHY 



5' 4"- 



Steel post 



5' 4" 

Wooden 
stays 



5' 4" 



Wooden 
post 



n 



'HA 
|1 



-^ 



"■ 



T7T 
! f 24" 



16' 



J 



1. Use wooden stays only— Wi inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden— minimum 
standard. 



MODERATE SNOW WITH LEVEL CONDITIONS 



r 



6' 8' 



Steel post 

V 



-6' 8' 

Wooden 

stays 




6' 8" 



Wooden 
post 



n 



$l£ 



>■.■-:.•■ Ha 

li 





U 



I | 24' 



20' 



A 



1. Use wooden stays only— IV2 inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden. 



HEAVY SNOW WITH STEEP TOPOGRAPHY 



5' 



/ 



Steel post 



Wooden 
post ^ 



/ 



Wooden 
stays 



il 





i! 

LJ. 



T 

24" 



10' 



1. Use wooden stays only— VA inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden— minimum 
standard. 



145 



Post spacing for barbed wire fence is generally the 
same as for smooth wire fence. However, the kind 
of post used, post spacing, and post depth depend 
on the conditions at the site. Barbed wire does 
not hold up well in heavy snow conditions. Where 
possible, use jack-leg posts in areas of heavy snow 
accumulation and switch back to regular wood or 
metal posts where the snow is not as deep. The 
drawings below show post spacings in various 
snow depths. 



LIGHT OR NO SNOW WITH LEVEL TOPOGRAPHY 



■6' 3" 



Steel post 




6' 3" 



Wood 
stay 



6' 3" 



Wood post 

Nl 



Mu 



u l 



<? : -.v\ 



25' 




0" 






i I 24' 



25' 



-1 



1. Wood or wire stays 

wood m inches x 2 inches x 48 inches 
wire 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire for 
wooden stays 

4. Steel posts may be used. 




These photos were taken on the same site. Note the 
difference in condition of the wire between the two 
fence post types. 



MODERATE SNOW WITH STEEP TOPOGRAPHY 



5'- 



Steel 

y post 




Wood 

Stay ^J 



Wood 
post 



1 



«*:•••■;-' 



"' \ i 24" 



20' 



1. Use wooden stays only 1V4 inches x 2 inches 
48 inches 

2. Stays rest sohdly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden. 



146 



Pronghorn antelope crawl under fences rather 
than jump over or crawl through them. Bottom- 
wire-to ground clearance of 16 to 18 inches is 
adequate for antelope passage. Wire spacings 
depend on the kind of animal to be controlled. 

Adjustable fence segments can allow antelope to 
move freely. In adjustable fence segments one or 
more wires are moveable. Use Davison fence clips, 
a three-staple lock, or some other fast-hooking 
system to allow wires to be moved quickly and 
easily. 



CATTLE AND SHEEP WITH ANTELOPE 



R 



~i» 



_- 



i i 






8" 



Smooth wire 



i 



15" 



3-wire. 



CATTLE WITH ANTELOPE 




12" 



12" 



Smooth wire 



18"(min) 



3-wire. 



SHEEP WITH ANTELOPE 



rM 



\\ 



3& 



[I 



« 



8" 



6" 



Smooth wire 



Urn. 



10' 



. » .• ° '. " * 

4-wire. 




SHEEP WITH ANTELOPE 








Smooth ^ e 



o » , » • » 




Davison clip 



Three staple lock 



4-wire with one wire removeable. 



147 



Woven Wire 



Woven wire fences are available in eight standard 
heights with various combinations of horizontal 
wires, gauges, and stay-wire spaces. It is best used 
in areas where tight control is necessary— hog, 
sheep, predator control, or people. Each fence type 
has a design number that accurately decribes the 



fence. For example, design No. 1155-12-9 has 
11 horizontal wires, is 55 inches high, has 12-inch 
spacing of vertical stays, and has 9 gauge 
intermediate wires. The following table covers 
standard designs : 







Standar 


d Designs of Woven Field Wire 
















Approximate 






No. of 


Spacing of 


Gauge of 


Gauge of 


weight per 






horizontal 


vertical 


top and 


intermediate 


20-rod 




Height 


wires 


stay wires 


bottom 


wires 


roll 


Design 


(inches) 

55 




(inches) 
12 


wires 




(lb) 
342 


No. 


11 


9 


9 


1155-12-9 


49 


9 


12 


9 


9 


288 


949-12-9 








9 


9 


416 


1047-6-9 








9 


11 


280 


1047-6-11 






6 


10 


12% 


190 


1047-6-12% 


47 


10 


or 














12 


9 


9 


306 


1047-12-9 








9 


11 


212 


1047-12-11 








10 


12% 


146 


1047-12-12% 








9 


9 


258 


845-12-9 


45 


8 


12 


9 


11 


180 


845-12-11 








10 


12% 


126 


845-12-12% 








9 


11 


246 


939-6-11 








10 


12% 


168 


939-6-12% 






6 


11 


14% 


112 


939-6-14% 


39 


9 


or 














12 


9 


9 


270 


939-12-9 








9 


11 


188 


939-12-11 








10 


12% 


132 


939-12-12% 








9 


9 


194 


635-12-9 


35 


6 


12 


9 


11 


140 


635-12-11 








10 


12% 


100 


635-12-12% 








9 


11 


214 


832-6-11 








10 


12% 


148 


832-6-12% 






6 


11 


14% 


98 


832-6-14% 


32 


6 


or 














12 


9 


9 


236 


832-12-9 








9 


11 


166 


832-12-11 








10 


12% 


116 


832-12-12% 








9 


9 


266 


726-6-9 








9 


11 


184 


726-6-11 








10 


12% 


128 


726-6-12% 






6 


11 


14% 


86 


726-6-14% 


26 


7 


or 














12 


9 


9 


202 


726-12-9 








9 


11 


144 


726-12-11 








10 


12% 


102 


726-12-12% 



148 



. ■■.,.;-., ■ ■::■:.;. £.-;*;- 



Horizontal spacings are : 



(Furnished in 20-rod rolls) 



1 I 1 



8" 



ffi 10 in 

•if -^ m 

01 00 to 

6 6 6 

2 2 2 „ 

c c a 

B BO BO 

co '33 '35 *7>> 

01 CD 4) ' 

Q Q Q _ 



6" 



5V4" 



5' 

4%' 



4" 



3%" 
3"" 



to cn oi ■* m 

CN co W O ,_, 

b co ai h ri 

o 6 o o 6 

2 2 2 2z 

g s a g e 

ap bo bo bo g, 

w 'w 'to 'w 'S 

41 CU CD 9 % 

a a a a o 



Li-LLU 




jisii 

Typical woven wire fence. 



CATTLE AND SHEEP ONLY 







. r 


l 














^-2" 








T - 


j 

i 


9" 


r 


i 


1 n , 


" * ■" * 








7 


j 












j 




. 












ii. 




















i 


i, 












2 




4^ 






i 


L_ 














31" 








"r 
















' 


r 
































-*,-.lfc. 


i 


7 



T- - „ ■ ■ 

■ • «•• ' :, " >o *• . - r u s ' - «. •". 4 

5" 
Woven wire with 2 strands barbed wire 



CATTLE AND SHEEP ONLY 













" 














n 


J 




































. 
































































































L 














































^ ^ J 


j|g 















10' 



42" 



32' 



' V *. "- <1 V 



Woven wire with 1 strand barbed wire 



SHEEP ONLY 



2" 




» w « ■« w 



flT,. 

24" 26" 28 

II I 1 



36" 



y/° ';-~-' : ~:^< r \;.^ f ."•;• -,••;•• v. 



Woven wire with 2 strands barbed wire 



149 



Speciality Fences 

Suspension fences are subjected to greater tensions 
than conventional fence posts. They should be 
built with double brace assemblies every Vi mile or 
closer. 



action of the spans. Treated wood or steel posts 
may be used. A 6-foot long, 6-inch by 4-inch wood 
post that is driven 2 feet, 6 inches into the ground 
is preferred. If steel posts are used, they should be 
at least 6 feet long, driven 2 feet into the ground, 
and have anchor plates. 



Semi-suspension fences are most often constructed 
with 50-foot post spacing and stays 16 feet apart. 
However, post spacing may range from 25 to 50 
feet with stay spacing 10 to 16 feet. Design and 
spacing will have to be adjusted to accommodate 
changing topography and soil conditions. Although 
semi-suspension fences do reduce costs by using 
fewer posts, they do not have the flexibility or 
whipping action that full suspension fences have. 
Semi-suspension fences are are generally made with 
four strands of 12V& gauge barbed wire. A sheep 
fence may require six strands. High tensile strength 
smooth wire may be substituted for barbed wire. 

Suspension and semi-suspension fences share these 
advantages : 

1. They require fewer posts (about 200 less 
per mile). 

2. They cost about half as much to construct 
as a conventional barbed wire fence. 

3. The whipping action of a suspension fence 
turns livestock better than conventional fences. 

4. Their flexibility allows tumbleweeds to blow 
under or over the fence. 

5. They stand up to moderately heavy snowpack 
and big game use. 

6. They last as long as conventional barbed wire 
fences if they are properly constructed and main- 
tained. 

They are not suitable for rough or broken country 
nor for areas where vegetative growth will interfere 
with the whipping action of the fence. They are 
also not suitable for fence lengths of less than 
650 feet (200 m). They do not withstand pressure 
from livestock in high use areas like watering 
points. 

Posts are the chief material expense for 
constructing suspension fences. Fewer posts per 
mile reduce costs. The average post spacing is 100 
feet. However, 80- to 120-foot spacing may be 
required in undulating topography. Spacing of less 
than 80 feet reduces the flexibility of whipping 



Stays or droppers are constructed of wire, wood, 
or fiberglass. They are used to maintain wire 
spacing, serve as visual barriers to stock, and they 
distribute pressure evenly to all the wires in a span. 
Stays may either be steel spiral twists or treated 
wood slats. Treated wood stays are preferred 
because they are a more effective visual barrier 
to livestock and are more durable under moderate 
to heavy snowpack. Stays on a suspension fence 
must neither touch the ground nor be encumbered 
in dense vegetation or they will limit the whipping 
action. Stay spacing between posts is 
recommended at 15 to 20 feet, however, 25-foot 
spacings are being used with success. 

Exclosures are variable-sized fenced areas that 
exclude grazing on a range area. There are three 
types : 

(1) Total exclosure of domestic livestock and 
wildlife; 

(2) Exclosure of domestic livestock only; 

(3) Open range check plots. 

Exclosures are built to prevent grazing on the 
area. Exclosures might be used to compare 
ungrazed range, range grazed by all animals, and 
range grazed by wildlife alone. Exclosures 
sometimes protect demonstration areas, adminis- 
trative study sites, watering sites, nesting sites, 
or instrument installation sites. We have included 
designs for excluding livestock and wildlife. These 
designs may be adapted to other uses. 

Fences should not influence the vegetation of the 
study plot. Size is mostly influenced by density 
of the vegetation. A minimum size of 1 acre may 
be used in dense vegetation, but the exclosure may 
need to be as large as 5 acres if the vegetation is 
sparse. The area should be large enough so wildlife 
are not discouraged from entering the unit. Gates 
should never be included to discourage using the 
facility as a holding facility for livestock. Ladders, 
steps, stiles or walk-throughs should be used if the 
exclosure will be entered frequently. Otherwise, 
pass between the wires or simply climb the fence. 



150 



The site for the exclosure should be carefully 
chosen. Exclosures should be constructed on a 
uniform soil type. Information gathered from one 
exclosure over several soil types is useless. 
Avoid snowdrift areas. Let-down fences or panels 
are more flexible in heavy snow areas. 

Signs may discourage vandalism and be a good 
source of information on the purpose of the 
exclosure. The date it was started, vegetation 
being studied, types of animals being excluded 
should be included. 

Exclosures provide data on : 

1. Production by species, which helps determine 
the amount of total available forage. 

2. Utilization by species, which indicates the 
amount of remaining forage and determines how 
long pasture may be grazed without damage. 



3. Palatability or preference by species, which 
determines stocking capactiy. 

4. Competitive ability of species, which indicates 
the recuperative ability of overgrazed ranges and 
the ability of a range to withstand heavy grazing. 

5. Pasture mixes for reseeding, which shows 
those native species with the highest palatability 
to compete with other species. 

6. Provide a comparative consumption of the 
domestic livestock and the wildlife. 

7. Results of total exclusion of all grazing 
animals. 

8. Time required for a range to recuperate 
naturally, which determines if it is quicker and 
more economical to artificially revegetate the 
area or more economical to exclude or control 
grazing and allow the range to revegetate naturally. 



Materials Needed for a 1-Acre Study Plot 



Exclosure 


Deerproof 


Elkproof 


Size 

Height 

Construction 


1 acre 
7 feet 

Woven wire 6 feet 6 inches high 
topped with 1 strand 
barbed wire 


1 acre 

9 feet 

woven wire 8 feet high topped 

with 2 strands barbed wire 




wooden posts 12 foot center, 
10 foot spacing at corners 
no gates 

1 stay between posts 


wooden posts 12 foot center, 
10 foot spacing at corners 
no gates 
1 stay between posts 


Corner and Brace 
Posts 

Line posts 
Wooden stays 
Heavy-Duty Woven Wire 


(12) 6-inch diameter 10 feet long 
(60) 5-inch diameter 10 feet long 
(64) 3-inch diameter 7 feet long 
(6) 20 rod rolls, 39 inches high 


(12) 6-inch diameter 12 feet long 
(60) 5-inch diameter 12 feet long 
(64) 3-inch diameter 9 feet long 
(6) 20 rod rolls, 48 inches 



151 



Materials Needed to Construct a 3-Acre Livestock Exclosure 



Exclosure 


Cattle 


Sheep 


Size 


3 acres 


3 acres 


Height 


36 inches 


34 to 36 inches 


Construction 


3 strands high 


woven wire 32 inches high 




18 inches smooth wire 


with 4 -inch wooden rail 




barbed wire 40 inches, 4-inch 


on top or barbed wire at 




wooden rail or barbed 


36 inches and 40 inches 




wire 






wooden or iron posts 


wooden or iron posts 




12 foot center 


12 foot center 




no gates 


no gates 


Corner and Brace 






Posts 


(11) 6-inch diameter 7 feet long 


(11) 6-inch diameter 7 feet long 


Line posts 


(94) iron or 4-inch diameter 


(94) iron or 4-inch diameter 




6 feet long 


6 feet long 


Stays Wooden 


(200) 2-inch diameter 48 inches 
long 


Same 


Wire 


One roll barbed, 


(4) 20 rod rolls 32 inches 




1,5000 feet smooth wire 


heavy-duty woven wire 


Poles 


(1,200) 4-inch diameter poles 


(1,200) 4-inch diameter poles 



Utility cages protect plants from grazing, browsing, 
and trampling by large animals. They should be 
constructed large enough to provide a represent- 
ative plot for clipping, but not so large that they 
cannot be easily moved by one person. The main 
purpose of utility cages is to allow comparison of 
grazed range vegetation and protected vegetation 
for determining utilization and total herbage 
production of the various plants in the community. 
Utility cages allow plant vigor to be determined by 
comparing production of similar species on similar 
sites. The cages may also help demonstrate fluc- 
tuations of forage production and use due to 
changes in climate and plant phenology*, Utility 
cages are also a good way to demonstrate potential 
production. Cages should be placed on a represent- 
ative site. The type of cage will depend most on 
the vegetation to be enclosed. Sod-forming grasses 
and small forbs may be sufficiently protected by 
a conical cage. Bunch grasses, low shrubs, and 
taller forbs need to be enclosed in the square or 
box cage. Taller shrubs require cylindrical open 
top designs. 




Typical utility cage. 



152 



Conical 

By cutting out a half circle (using a 48-inch radius) 
from a roll of 48-inch galvanized, general-purpose 
welded wire fabric (Style 1348-2-1 2^ C.F.&I. Co.) 
with a pair of sharp bolt cutters, a cone can rapidly 
be constructed by folding the straight side in half 
and lacing it together with a light malleable wire. 
The protected area under this cage is approximate- 
ly 12 square feet, allowing ample area for a 9.6 
square foot circular plot sample to be clipped. 
Cone shaped cages are all steel— all welded 
construction of galvanized No. \1 x h gauge wire. 
The cage is securely held in place by three 80 
penny spikes wired to the bottom of the cage by 
a light malleable wire. Eighteen cages can be 
packed on a pack horse at one time. 



Cut here 



Cut here 




10' 



Cutting pattern. 




Square Utilization Cage 

T wood poles (Aspen, Lodgepole. etc.) 

Tie wire 




Utilization cage — type 1. 



Cut and bend 



Tie wire all joints 
when in place 



Stakes 




~N ,• 



\ 



If sides are 36", cut wire 12' 
If sides are 39", cut wire 13' 
If sides are 42", cut wire 14' 



Ground line 



V/t" angle iron 



48 " steel 
fence 
post 



12" 

_I 



Sides covered 
with woven wire 
No. 11 field wire 

Frame to be 
bolted or welded 



Hog rings or wire 



Utilization cage — type 2. 



153 



asajssSBftgfraHSflai* 



Cylindrical Open-Top Cage 

The materials to construct utility cages will vary. 
The strength of the structure depends on the type 
of animals that may push or rub against the cage. 
Ten-gauge concrete reinforcing wire is recommend- 
ed but 12V2 gauge woven wire will suffice. 
Combination panels may also be used. If these 
panels are rust proof, they will last for many 
years and can be dismantled and transported. 

A skeletal frame is required to support the square 
closed construction. Angle iron may be used. On- 
site aspen or lodgepole pine rails are usually 
sufficiently strong and are much less expensive. 
The pole frame will be wired at the corners of the 
frame. Steel fence posts or wooden posts serve 
as corner posts. Soft steel wire of No. 14 gauge is 
satisfactory. Attach the cage to the ground to 
prevent it from being blown or pushed over. The 
square cage can be fastened down by making the 
corner braces longer and driving them at least 
1 foot into the ground. Stakes can be made by 
cutting rebar and bending one end into a hook 
to pin the cages. Also, 80 to 120d spikes with the 
head-end bent over into a hook can anchor the 
cage c Steel posts can be cut to approximately 
18 inches and driven into the ground. The cage 
can then be wired to the sunken posts. 

The cylindrical open-top cage is made by cutting 
a length off a roll of wire. A piece 14.33 feet long 
will make a cylinder 4.5 feet in diameter. This is 
large enough to protect a 9.6 square-foot plot. 
The ends are joined by using the ends of the cut 
woven wire, hog rings, or No. 14 gauge soft steel 
wire. The cage is then pinned. 

Diameter: approx. 4V2' 
Circumference: approx. 14V2' 



r 



1-1 J T 










„---""" 1 "■;» 




* _ ^- — -~"~~ 




=::::::;: —,--- 







Anchor pins 
lOOd or 120d 
spikes 



11% to 12 

gauge steel 

wire 

2" x 4" mesh 



Wire ends or 
use hog rings 
to fasten 



A conical cage requires a little more cutting. A 
10-foot wire section 5 feet wide makes a cone that 
will protect an area of approximately 12-square 
feet. This will be ample to provide a 9.6 
square-foot circular plot. Cut a 10 foot x 5 foot 
piece of steel mesh half circle. Cut a thin wedge 
approximately Vt foot from one edge of the half 
circle. The cone can then be fastened together. 
Both cut edges can also be fastened to a piece of 
pipe equal in length to the cut edge on the inside 
of the circle. The cage can then be fastened down. 

Tools for constructing utility cages are : a pair of 
good wire cutters; pliers to bend or wrap wire; a 
mallet to drive the stakes; a tape measure; chalk to 
draw out patterns; a welding machine may be 
required to weld the framework on the square 
closed cage; a drill for drilling metal; a wrench to 
tighten bolts; and a saw to cut poles. 

A comparison of cost for the styles is estimated 
as follows: 



Cage 



No./Roll 



Cost/Cage 



12V4 gauge, 6- x 6-inch mesh, 47 inches wide, 330-foot roll, 


$90 /roll 


square 1 8 
cylinder 23 
cone 33 


$5 
$4 
$3 


10 gauge, 6- x 6-inch mesh, 5 feet wide, 150-foot roll, 


$50/roll 


square l" 
cylinder 10 


$5 
$5 
$4 



Cages should be made as unobtrusive as possible. 
Sharp wire ends and corners should be avoided. 
Consult Forest Service, Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment, Soil Conservation Service, universities, or 
county extension services for specific information 
on exclosure facilities. 




k-'ps- " .' '■■-'■'',;. ,-.;;....;: S „?3 

Pyramid utilization cage. 



154 



Excluding wildlife requires some special consider- 
ations. Animal pressure varies according to avail- 
ability of food, water, cover, breeding areas, birth- 
ing areas, migration routes, and hunting pressure. 
All affect how wildlife respond to various fence 
designs. For example, where food is readily avail- 
able, almost any design will exclude wildlife; but 
where food is scarce, only formidable, well-built 
fences will exclude wildlife. 



Exclusion of Pronghorn Antelope 

A well-constructed sheep fence acts as a very 
effective deterrent to antelope. A woven wire 
fence higher than 32 inches with two or three 
barbed wire strands on the top provides good 
protection. 

Cattle with Deer, Elk, or Moose 



Antelope normally crawl under or through 
fences rather than jump them. If the bottom-wire- 
to-ground clearance is kept at 8 inches or below 
and the spacings of the wire on the fence remain 
at 8 inches or below, antelope will be excluded. 
Antelope will jump fences 30 inches or below. 

Deer normally jump fences, but will crawl 
through them if the fence is too high to jump. 
Most deer can easily jump a 42-inch high fence. 
To exclude deer requires a vertically built fence 
at least 78 inches high. A sloping fence makes it 
possible to build a lower fence and still exclude 
deer. 



SLOPING FENCE TO 
EXCLUDE DEER 



2" hexagonal mesh 
wire netting 




Use wooden stays Vi inch x 1 inch x 7 feet. Stay 
spacing should be 2 l A feet— half way between line 
posts. Use galvanized wire clips or 14 gauge stay 
tie wires. 

Buffalo will be excluded by a 12 strand fence. 
Elk require 15 strands. 

Normally, fences that exclude buffalo and elk will 
also exclude deer and antelope. Fences should have 
12 to 13 horizontal lines, be 61 to 75 inches high, 
and have 6- to 12-foot vertical wire spacing. Use 
high tensile woven wire to exclude wildlife. 



,.ife 



T 

16" 



T 



26" 



38' 



, 1**8* 



^L 



-7*1 * ■ ¥ 



40" 



28" 



sC 



1 , 22' 

JLJ. 



V ^ fcO 



/ B o ' 



Deer normally jump with their hind legs forward. 
If the top two fence wires are loose or too close 
together, deer can entangle their hind legs and 
damage the fence. Entanglement can be fatal. 
Elk and moose more often damage fence than 
injure themselves. They seldom become entangled 
because they drag their hind legs over the top 
wire. Adjustable fence segments, let-down fences, 
swing-back fences, post with pole and wire fences, 
or wood fences are designs to consider for safe 
wildlife movement. 

Adjustable Cattle with Deer, Elk, or Moose 




155 



The barrier height of any fence is increased with 
the increase of ground slope for deer, elk, or 
moose. The following diagram illustrates this 
increase in barrier height for a 42-inch high fence 
as the ground slope increases. 







62" 




75" 




In the areas of heavy seasonal movement by deer, 
elk, or moose, the preferred fence is the post, 
pole and wire fence, or any wood fence design. 
These designs provide a visual barrier height that 
wildlife can negotiate without causing damage to 
the fence or to themselves. 







WL 










n, 










Ej£p-r==dlIEi 




/'■'■■ 


i-^ip*-^- 


-*—**#— 


„ „ 


-^raW^ 11 " *W^ — 


-^—^J^L- 



In wildlife areas, all new wire fences should be 
marked with flagging. In areas of seasonal move- 
ment, permanent flagging may be required. 



156 



Adjustable Cattle with Antelope 

The stay let-down fence allows you to lay the 
fence barrier on the ground. The posts remain set 
and the bottom of the stays are attached to these 



posts so wildlife do not become entangled. Because 
fencing wires contact the ground, they tend to 
corrode quickly. However, fence damage from 
migrating wildlife is eliminated and wildlife move- 
ment is virtually unhindered. 



12" 





ill ' » * M ' ^ - ^ ■ ^^ " » 1 ' 

38" '^^^^^f 

i ^JL /^vi^ 



k; 



Stay Let-Down Fence 



Staple 



Permit enough slack in loop 
to hold or release stay 



Post 



Nicro press sleeve 




No. 9 wire loop at 
top and bottom (loose 
at top). Staple lower 
loop to stay 



1V4" staple 



Wire loops 




Stays 



157 



Laydown Fence for Snow Country 

Where damage from snow is severe on standard 
wire fences, a laydown fence has reduced main- 
tenance costs by two-thirds on Black Mesa in 
western Colorado. Basically it is a standard 4-wire 
fence that can be laid down as a unit. One person 
can let it down or put it up. 




Staple Let-Down Fence 

The staple let-down fence allows all fencing wire to 
be moved to a low position on the line posts by 
letting the slack on each wire out temporarily. 
The tension can be reapplied easily. 



Driven staple . 



Staple key 





Strain insulator 
(smooth wire to let 
out and take up slack) 



158 



Flood gates may have to be installed in low areas 
subject to flash floods. As with any fence on 
uneven terrain, it is often necessary to install one 
or more self-cleaning flood gates in high tensile 
wire fences crossing wash gaps. While various 
types of flood gates have been made of sheet 
metal, barbed wire, and even used automobile 
tires, economical and functional flood gates can 
be fabricated of one or more panels of pressure- 
creosoted boards held together with high tensile 
wire and staples, or with wood stays and galvanized 
nails. The panels can be fashioned to fit the contour 
of the slope on each side of the gap or segmented 
to swing only in areas subjected to flooding. The 
panels can also be suspended with loops of high 
tensile wire from a horizontal cable consisting of a 
doublewrap of high tensile wire strung between 
the line posts on either side of the gap. These 
posts should be diagonally guy-wired to the ad- 
jacent line posts : 



Water gaps control livestock where fences cross 
streams or drainages. Fences may be damaged 
during heavy runoff unless water and water-born 
debris are allowed to pass under. Consult an 
engineer when deciding whether or not to install 
a water gap. Most water gaps or flood gates are 
designed to be self cleaning. Sometimes the 
cleaning action is not totally complete and the 
gate is blocked partially open. Livestock are then 
able to get through this opening. Check gates after 
heavy rainfall. 

There are two basic types of water gaps: For areas 
with very little water and only occasional flooding, 
a breakaway fence will be sufficient. In areas with 
regular flooding, it may be best to construct 
floating gates or panels. 

For depressions less than 16 feet wide, fence 
across the depression with no braces. For depress- 
ions over 16 feet wide, construct a fence that will 
breakaway only in the depression and leave the 
rest of the fence undamaged. Start by constructing 
braces on each side of the depression. Next, 
construct the fence in the depression. Set the end 
posts 6 to 12 inches from the brace posts. The 
short section of breakaway fence will then be 
attached to the main fence brace with a light 
gauge wire. This tie -wire is to break if the fence in 
the depression fails. When the fence in the de- 
pression breaks free of the main fence, damage to 
the main fence is eliminated. 



Double wrap of 
high-tensile wire 




'■'t '■■■' 

Direction of flow 



Double wrap of 
high -tensile wire 




Flood gates. 



Direction 
of flow 



Light gauge wire 





; u ".'■»■;■.■' ' : 



a u 



:'u 

































\ 










> 














:^\ 










_z; 














fay 






— 


=?$ 








" ' '•;•'■- 


\\\ 






'// 


1 '..' 




u .^ 






//I'M • 






ft ■' ' 


' '•'' 1 


- 


j 




/. 

J 



Water gaps. 



159 



Use the same posts, wire, and wire spacing as that 
used on the regular fence. Post depth may be 
reduced to 12 inches to prevent damage to the 
posts when the fence in the depression fails. 

If the depression to be fenced has regular flooding, 
use a swinging or floating panel. The panel must be 
free to swing when water comes through. Con- 
struct cross braces on the down-stream side of the 
panel to provide a smooth edge for the debris to 
slide by. Consult an engineer. 




If more than 16' 
construct fence 
in depression 



6" space 



Fencing in wide depressions that will 
prevent damage to the main fence in 
case of flooding or deep snow accumulation 



6" space 




Fence crossing depression. 



2V4" x 6" pickets. 
Install with 2" x 10" "U" clamps. 
1" pipe supported by 5/8" cable 
(inside pipe). IV*" pipe spacers 
keep pickets in desired location 




V "> 

\ *y Deadman 



Picket fence across streams- 



No. 9 wire 



Lifting pickets above water to avoid ice damage. 




"^ Brace post Anchor to deadman 



160 




Typical swinging picket fence crossing a stream. 



Light tie wire 



Heavy stay 




• • ; u\.'. •• • * /u 



Poles can be used in place of rocks. 
Panels can be made of woven wire or boards. 
Tie panel ends with light wire so during flood 
periods one or both ends will break loos,e 
without disturbing main fence line 



Rocks 



Brace design and placement considering changes in topography. 



161 



3 post brace on each 
side of draw or stream 




4" poles cut to fit holes are 
hung from barb wire fence 
with No. 9 brace wire 

Crossing large washes and live streams. 



Large draws or live stream 



Wire stays 




Dead men 



Log or plank 



Water gap for narrow drainages. 



Wood post 



6' x 6" dia. pipe filled with concrete 
Wood 




24" (min) 
Break-away fence for wide, shallow water gaps 



Concrete blocks 



162 



Construction 

The fence design will determine post spacing 
between the brace assemblies and wire spacing 
between the ground and the top of the posts. 

Stringing the Guide Wire 

Proper stringing of the guide wire is the key to 
building a straight fence, and a fence where the 
bottom wire remains the same height off the 
ground. The procedure for stringing the guide 
wire is : 

On Level Terrain— -having set the braces, mark the 
wire spacing on each brace for the type of fence. 
Use a wooden stay that has been notched at the 
height of each wire. For dark posts, use chalk; 
for light posts, use some type of dark marker. 

Anchor a single-coil payout reel (spinning jenny) 
at the first brace. Starting with a coil of high 
tensile fence wire of sufficient length to reach the 
far end post, grip the outside end of the wire and, 
allowing the jenny to turn freely but not over- 
ride, pull the wire out in a straight line to the far 
brace. Maintain enough tension on the wire to 
keep it on the ground and to prevent loops or 
recoils of slack wire. Do not attempt to pull out 
high tensile wire from a stationary coil. A rotating 
payout reel (spinning jenny) is necessary to keep 
the wire from spiraling and forming permanent 
kinks. 





Marking wire spacing. 

At the far end post, allow about 3 feet of wire 
beyond the post. Wrap the wire around the post 
from the livestock (wire) side, and secure it back 
onto itself 4 inches above thr^ ground with an end- 
post tie-off knot or with two mechanically crimped 
sleeves. 

Individual high tensile wires can be fastened to 
end, corner, and gate posts in the following ways: 

1. By tying off the wire with an end post knot. 
Allow about 30 inches of wire beyond the post. 
Wrap the wire around the post from the livestock 
side of the fence and loop the end over the top of 
the wire on the livestock side, allowing several 
inches clearance from the post. Bend the end of 
the wire underneath and around the line wire and 
over the top of the loop end as in tying a simple 
overhand knot. Slip the resulting loop back to the 
post. Twist the loose end of the wire as closely 
and tightly as possible around the line wire (at 
least two full turns). Place the loop toward the line 
wire side of the post. Pull tests show this knot to 
be effective up to 60 percent of the breaking 
strength of the wire, or about 1,100 pounds. 



End-post 
tie-off knot 



A rotating payout reel is used to string the guide wire. 




Wrapping wire at far end post. 



163 



2. With nicopress sleeves. Allow 24 inches of 
wire beyond the post. Thread two nicopress sleeves 
onto the wire and slide them back on the wire 
about 24 inches. Wrap the wire around the post 
from the livestock side and bring the end back to 
within a few inches of the post. Crimp both sleeves 
with a nicopress tool. This method of fastening 
has been pull-tested and found effective up to 
100 percent of the breaking strength of high tensile 
fence wire. The end of the wire should be bent 
back towards the sleeves to prevent any chance of 
slipping. 



2 nicopress sleeves 




Bend back 



Using nicopress sleeves to fasten wires to end, 
corner, and gate posts. 



Return to the starting post and again allow 3 feet 
of wire to wrap around the post from the. livestock 
side. Cut and fasten the wire back onto itself with 
a tie-off knot or two mechanically crimped sleeves. 

About 20 feet from the starting post, attach a 
chain-grab wire puller on the guide wire and pull 
it up until taut (about 100 pounds tension). The 
wire puller used for tensioning all high tensile 
wire should have smooth jaws. Wire pullers with 
serrated jaws are not recommended because they 
damage the galvanized coating and permanently 
score and weaken the wire. 




Tightening guide wire. 



3. With reliable wirevise. Drill a 3/8-inch hole 
for each wire at premarked heights completely 
through the post and at a slight angle opposite 
the livestock side of the fence. Thread the wire(s) 
a few inches through the holes and into a wirevice 
fitting for each wire. Slide the wirevice back over 
the wire until it is inserted into the hole. When 
tension is applied on the wire in the reverse 
direction, the wirevice becomes embedded in the 
post. The surplus wire should be cut off flush with 
the fitting. This fastener has been pull-tested and 
found effective up to 100 percent of the breaking 
strength of high tensile fence wire. If conditions 
exist that require the wire tension to be increased 
or decreased, the surplus wire should be wrapped 
around the post so these adjustments can be 
made. 



Cut surplus wire 
flush with fitting 



Sight down the wire and make sure it is straight. 
If it is not, take up slightly more tension. Lifting 
and whipping the wire up and down a few times 
aids in straightening it out. When paying out high 
tensile wire, use a full coil of wire, or a partial 
coil of known length. Mark all coil remnants with 
tags indicating their approximate length. 





Check alignment of guide wire. 



Using Reliable Wirevise to fasten wires to end, 
corner and gate posts. 



164 



On Uneven Terrain—Allow the temporary sighting 
poles to remain standing on rises and in dips. 
Follow the same procedures as for paying out the 
wire on level terrain. Keep the wire on the same 
side (the livestock side) of and within a few inches 
of the sighting poles in rises and dips. 



Near the sighting poles in each dip, mark the 
locations for driving the dip posts. If the guide 
wire is not too high, this can be done with a 
plumb bob. Do not pull the wire out of alignment 
when pulling it down for stapling. 




'' Tr^i' 1 "' 



^W* 5 **^* tW 



Paying out wire on uneven terrain. 





Guide wire 




Sighting 
pole 




1 Sighting 
! pole 








1 / Plumb bob 


£ 




.- "' D .' ^ 







At a highpoint where an end post can be seen 
(both, if possible), attach a chain-grab wire puller 
on the wire and pull it up until taut or to about 
100 pounds tension. The wire will be resting on 
the ground on rises, but bridging the low points 
in dips. 

At the highest point in each rise, lift and whip 
the wire up and down to get it as straight as 
possible and touching the guide poles. Mark the 
locations for setting rise posts. When driven, rise 
posts (and all line fence posts) should be Vfc-inch 
off the guide wire so it neither pushes against the 
wire, nor has to be pulled more than Vi-inch on 
to the posts for stapling. 

At the post marks on the rises, drive line posts 
8 feet long by 4 inches in diameter to a depth of 
48 inches. Mark the posts at the height of the 
lowest wire. In this case 4 inches up from the 
ground. Staple the guide wire to the rise posts. 
Drive the staples in a downward direction to pre- 
vent pull out. 



Drive staples 
downward 




Marking dip post location. 



At each dip post, set a longer (8 foot x 4 inch 
diameter) post 4 feet deep Driving longer posts 
deeper in the soil greatly increases resistance 
when tension is taken up on the line wires. 

Relieve the tension on the guide wire sufficiently 
to pull it down to the lowest mark on the dip 
post (4 inches from the ground). Staple the wire at 
that point in an upward direction. Tension the wire 
to 100 pounds. 




Setting dip post. 



Drive staple 
upward 



Stapling guide wire. 




Stapling guide wire to dip post. 



165 



Driving the Line Posts: 

Driving is the most satisfactory method of setting 
line posts for wire fences. Wood posts can generally 
be driven into any soil that can be dug with a 
shovel. The pull-out resistance of a dip post 
mechanically driven can be as much as ten times 
that of a hand-set post. A two-person crew can 
set up to five times as many posts per hour by 
driving as by hand-setting. Driving posts in pilot 
holes predrilled with an auger greatly speeds setting 
the large diameter posts required for brace 
assemblies and posts, which must be set with some 
degree of lean to withstand the pull of the high 
tensile wires. The recommended procedures for 
setting line posts are : 

On level terrain— -Having set the end posts and 
strung and tensioned the guide wire, premark 
the location for driving each line post by pacing 
off the fence line or by dragging a measured length 
of lightweight chain. Make a heelmark or other 
suitable mark where each post will be placed. 

Drive a truck or trailer loaded with 6V2-foot x 
4-inch line posts (and any larger posts, if required) 
parallel with the guide wire. Unload and lay out 
each post as near as possible to the location for 
driving. Place the smaller end toward the hole 
mark so each post need only be tilted up and 
centered for driving. 



Posts should be set on the downhill side of the wire 
on fences running across a slope. Line posts should 
be located on the side of the wire opposite the 
greatest livestock pressure,, 

Around curves— It is possible to continue wire 
fences around curves, even comers, without 
constructing brace assemblies. Several factors 
must be considered when laying out and staking 
the line. Whether a curve is gradual (long and 
sweeping) or abrupt (sharp), extra care must be 
taken in measuring the exact location of each post 
in the curve. As a rule, longer fence posts and, 
posts with larger diameters, will be needed, either 
of which must be driven deeper into the soil than 
line posts on a straight fence. On all curves, posts 
should be driven with a 4-inch lean off vertical 
toward the outside of the curve to compensate 
for movement when tension is taken up on the 
wires. On sharp curves, it will also be necessary to 
reduce the spacing between the posts. To prevent 
staple pull-out, the guide wire and all line wires 
should be strung around the outsides of all posts 
in curves. 

Depending on the relative sharpness of the curve, 
high tensile wires can be strung around a curve in 
three ways : 

[ Rounding a shallow one post curve. 



Drive each line post perpendicular to the surface 
of the ground 30 inches deep. Leave 48 inches 
above the ground. To maintain a straight fence, 
avoid pushing the guide wire out of straight 
alignment. Because of the increasing diameter of 
the tapered posts, drive each post Vz inch to 
3/4-inch away from the guide wire. 

On uneven ground— Driving line posts on uneven 
or sloping terrain presents special problems. Not 
all fence posts should be "spirit-level-plumb" 
on sloping terrain. If the angle of the slope is steep 
enough, this will significantly reduce the overall 
height of the fence. Although driving posts 
vertically on a 20-degree slope reduces the height 
of the top wire by only 3 inches, on a 40-degree 
slope the height of the top wire is reduced by 
11 inches. The best method of setting posts on a 
sloping terrain is to drive them perpendicular to 
the surface of the ground. Overall height of the 
fence should be sacrificed only when the slope 
becomes too steep to drive the posts. 



Stake C 




Extended sight line 



16'- 



V 



\* 



Note : The wire is strung around 
the outside of post at B 



Rounding a shallow one post curve. 



Correct 




* " ' 



Setting posts on sloping terrain. 



166 



Assuming the direction of the fence will change 
(20 degrees or less) at point B, toward point C, 
set temporary stakes 16 feet apart at points A and 
B. Set a stake where you think it should be at 
point C, 16 feet from B. Stretch a length of 
builder's twine from A to C. Perpendicular to the 
stringline (point B'), measure the distance from the 
string to stake B. If the distance from B' to stake B 
is: 

1. Less than 2 feet, drive an 8 foot x 4 inch 
post 4 feet deep at B. 

2. Between 2 feet and 4 feet, drive an 8 foot x 
5 inch post 4 feet deep at B. 

3. Over 4 feet, but not over 5 feet, 10 inches, 
drive an 8 foot x 6 inch post 4 feet deep at B. 

The post at B should be driven at a 4-inch lean 
toward the outside of the curve to allow movement 
when tension is taken up on the wires. These 
recommendations are for fences with seven or 
more wires. On fences with up to six wires, the 
diameters of the posts in steps 2 and 3 can be 
reduced by 1 inch, but not their lengths or driving 
depths. 

Before driving posts at points A and C, remember 
that the line wires will move 2 inches toward the 
inside of the curve when tensioned. Also remember 
that posts A and C should be on the side of the 
wire opposite the greater livestock pressure. For 
these reasons, drive posts A and C against the 
stringline toward the inside or outside of the curve, 
depending on which side will have the greater 
livestock pressure (See figure below). The object 
is to neither have to pull the line wires into posts A 
and C for stapling nor to have the live wires put 
any strain on the posts when tensioned. 




Livestock 
pressure 



Livestock 
pressure 




Installing line wires on a shallow one-post curve. 



Rounding a long gradual curve. 



Rounding a long-sweeping curve is simply an 
extension of Method 1. The essential differences 
are that posts C, D and E will also be pivotal and 
must be selected as in Method 1, and they must 
be driven with a 4-inch lean toward the outside of 
the curve to allow movement when tension 
applied on the wires. 



is 



String line 



'<* 



,^*^ Stake E 



V 



s 



B' 



-W- 



Stake D 




Stake C 



Extended sight line 



Stake A 



Stake B 



Rounding a long gradual curve. 



167 



,5 Rounding a sharp curve or corner 

Rounding a sharp curve or corner in 20-degree 
increments is similar to Method 2, but all posts 
are 8 feet x 6 inches, driven 48 inches deep and 
with a 4-inch lean toward the outside of the 
curve. Note also that the post spacing has been 
reduced to accommodate the reduced radius of 
the curve. However, to avoid disturbing the soil 
strata when driving the posts, 4-foot post spacing 
is the minimum. 

Locate the last straight-line post before a curve 
and the first straight-line post after a curve so that 
these posts are in proper position for stapling the 
line wires after tensioning. 





Three post corner. 




Four post corner. 



Single post corner. 





Double post corner. 



Five post corner. 



Stringing the Line Wires 

High tensile wire is stiffer and somewhat harder to 
bend than soft wire and it has a tendency to recoil 
when it is cut. To cut high tensile wire, hold the 
needed end in one hand and hold the end not 
needed down with one foot. If it is necessary to 
let go of the cut end, weigh it down with a tool, 
or simply push the end several inches into the 
soil. 

Wear clothing that completely covers your arms 
and legs, shoes with heavy soles, leather-reinforced 
gloves, and safety glasses or shatterproof 
eyeshields. 



On relatively short fences, electric fences, and 
those with fewer than six wires, it is practical to 
string and tie-off the wires one at a time. This is 
particularly true if half the needed wire is placed 
at each end of the fence, and two payout reels 
are used so wires can be strung alternately from 
each end. On long fences, or those with six or more 
wires, a tractor-mounted, multi-reeled payout 
mechanism can save labor and construction time. 



168 



On level terrain— Having set all line posts, mark the 
wire spacing on each post for the type of fence. 




Mark wire spacing. 

Load coils of high tensile fence wire onto the 
payout reels and, beginning at the gate post 
position on the livestock side of the fence posts, 
start from the location of the second wire from 
the bottom and working upward tie-off all wires 
at their premarked heights by looping each wire 
around the post and fastening it with two crimped 
nicopress sleeves. 



Begin at gate 
post position 




Start with second wire from bottom. 



In fastening each wire to the post, bend it to 
position it on its mark, but off-center toward the 
livestock side of the fence. 




Having tied off all wires, start the tractor and 
drive at an even, slow speed down the fence line, 
paying out all wires as close as possible to the line 
posts. Maintain sufficient tension on the wires to 
prevent loops which could become kinks when 
tension is taken up on the wires. 

At midpoint in the fence, stop the tractor and 
staple all wires from top to bottom at their proper 
marks on the midpoint post. Do not drive the 
staples tight against the wire but allow space for 
the wires to move within the staples. 

Continue paying out the wires to a point about 5 
feet beyond the far end post. Stop the tractor and 
the payout reels so sufficient tension is maintained 
on the wires to keep them separated and off the 
ground. 

Working from the lowest (second) wire upward, 
cut each wire off its reel. Allow about 3 feet to 
wrap it around the end post and tie it off with an 
end-post knot or with two mechanically crimped 
sleeves. Again, place the wire off-center toward the 
livestock side of the fence, but do not staple. 



Installing In-line Strainers—Return to the post at 
midpoint in the fence where the wires have been 
stapled to the post. Working from the top wire, 
attach a chain-grab wire puller about 4 feet away 
from the middle post and pull the slack out of the 
wire. An in-line strainer will travel along the wire 
to be taken up on the drum. Place the strainer of 
the wire with the drum away from the nearest 
post. Allow 2 feet for turning the handle. The 
strainer may be positioned towards the post if 
enough room is allowed for its movement. 



Chain-grab wire puller 




Middle post 



Pulling slack from wire. 



Fasten wire to off-center position toward livestock 
side offence. 



169 



Cut the wire at midpoint in the slack between the 
jaws of the wire puller and install an in-line strainer 
by threading two nicopress sleeves onto the end of 
the wire nearest the midpost. Slide them back 
12 inches and thread the wire through the holes in 
the shank of the strainer about 6 inches. Bend the 
wire back onto itself. Slide the sleeves forward 
about 3 inches to enclose the end of the wire and 
crimp the sleeves. To insure that the wire does 
not slip, bend it back on itself over the sleeves. 



About 3" 




Uninsulated in-line 
wire strainer 

Installing in-line wire strainer. 



Thread the line wire through the hole in the drum 
of the in-line wire strainer and cut off the surplus 
wire close to the drum. Attach the handle and turn 
the drum enough to secure the wire and insert 
the ratchet pin. Continue turning the drum until 
no slack remains in the wire. 



2 nicopress 
sleeves 

Spring 




Install an in-line wire strainer and tension indicator spring. 



The imprinted notches on the clevis are the tension 
indicators. The first notch is zero tension and each 
notch from there is in 100 pound increments. 

Following procedures for installing in-line wire 
strainers, install in-line wire strainers in the remain- 
ing wires, place the strainer in the same direction 
and crank the drum to take out the slack. 




Thread wire 
through hole 
in drum ^^ 

Attaching line wire to in-line wire strainer. 



Attach the wire puller to the next lower wire and 
pull out the slack. Cut the wire between the jaws 
of the wire puller and install an in-line strainer to 
which a tension indicator spring has been attached. 
Secure the spring loop to the line wire with two 
crimped nicopress sleeves. 




Tension indicator 
Installing tension indicator. 



Splicing Wire 

Avoid slack while paying out high tensile wire. 
This reduces recoils which, when the wire is 
tensioned, can become sharp bends or kinks. 
High tensile wire can withstand bends up to 
90° and restraightening without significantly 
reducing the breaking strength of the wire. Bends 
greater than 90° should be cut out and the wire 
must be spliced at those points. In-line splicing 
may be accomplished by tying a figure-8 knot. 
Overlap the ends of the wires to be spliced 10 
inches to 12 inches and bend a loop in the end of 
each around the other wire, but in opposite 
directions. Bring the end of the wire in each loop 
under itself, so that the ends of the wires are 
parallel but pointing in opposite directions. Pull 
the loops together until the ends of the wires are 
touching. After final tensioning, cut the surplus 
ends of the wires as close as possible to the loops. 
This knot has been found effective up to 66 
percent of the breaking strength of the wire. 

In-line splicing may also be accomplished by 
installing three nicopress sleeves. Two wires can be 
lap-spliced by threading three nicopress sleeves 
of the proper size onto one wire, then sliding them 
forward and threading them on the opposite 



170 



■:"r:^-~-^7?3Bs^^mt^Mm 



wire. The sleeves must then be crimped. This 
mechanical splicing method has been tested and 
found effective up to 100 percent of the breaking 
strength of the wire. Some suggest bending the 
ends of the wires up to reduce the chance of 
slipping. 




In-line splicing by tying a figure-8 knot. 



Line Splice for Barbed Wire 

Commercial compression sleeves are used to make 
splices on all types of wire. These sleeves can be 
purchased in different sizes to meet various wire 
gauges. 





In-line splicing with three nicopress sleeves. 



Installing a Reliable Wirelink is another 
recommended method for in-line splicing. Two 
high-tensile wires can be butt-spliced by simply 
inserting both wires as far as possible into the ends 
of the fitting and pulling in the opposite direction. 
This mechanical splicing method has been tested 
and found effective up to 100 percent of the 
breaking strength of the wire. 



Splicing wire using a commercial compression sleeve. 



When using a splicing tool on net fencing, cut ends 
of line wires on each section so about 4 inches of 
each line wire extends beyond the stay wire. 

Pull ends of fence sections together until stay 
wires meet. 

Bend top line wire of one fence section around 
top line wire of other fence section and wrap . 

Wrap remaining top line wire in opposite direction 



Ends of wire stays 




□ 




In-line splicing using a Reliable Wirelink. 




Splicing a net fence. 



171 



Top line 
wire 




Splicing a net fence using a splicing tool. 



Laying Barbed Wire 

Unroll barbed wire to the next brace assembly. 
Do not loop the wire off the side of the roll. Be 
sure to wear leather gloves and boots. 

Starting with the top wire, attach the end of the 
wire to the anchor post of the brace assembly. Be 
sure the wire can easily slide in the staple. 




Loose fit 



Start with the top wire. The wire must easily slide 
through the staple. 

Then, extend the wire around the post and wrap 
the end around the wire itself at least five times. 
Be sure that the tie is in the center of the anchor 
post. 



Tie in center of anchor post 




There are several improved methods of unrolling 
barbed wire. This may be done by hand or 
mechanically. If done by hand, safety precautions 
such as shields and leather gloves are mandatory. 
The safest hand method employs a home-made or 
purchased frame that rolls directly on the ground 
so the spool is not carried. 

A frame for unrolling up to five rolls of barbed 
wire can be mounted on the back of a pickup or 
tractor. When using this type of unrolling device, 
2 miles per hour is maximum truck speed and one 
person will be assigned as lookout to stop the 
vehicle if problems develop. 




Tie off wire, making sure the tie is in the center 
of the anchor post 



Methods of unrolling barbed wire. 



172 



Stretching Barbed Wire 

To prevent the wire from slacking when the 
stretchers are removed, a dummy post should be 
set up. The dummy post is a temporary structure 
used only for stretching the fencing wire. 

Construct dummy post as shown : 




strand. It is possible to stretch barbed wire until 
it breaks with a hand stretcher. If this happens, 
anyone near the wire can be severely cut. If you 
have to handle barbed wire while it is being 
stretched, keep a post between you and the wire. 
Always handle the wire with pliers and leather 
gloves to help prevent injury. 

Once the wire is properly stretched, attach it to 
the second brace assembly with staples. Be sure 
that the staples do not force the wire into the post. 

One technique for fastening barbed wire to the 
anchor post is to cut one of the two wires and 
untwist. The uncut strand still holds tension on the 
line wire. Extend the cut wire around the post and 
wrap it to the line wire. Leave a space between 
each wrap. Cut the remaining wire. Extend it 
around the post and wrap it between the wraps 
of the first wire. 



Dummy post details. 



Attach fence stretcher to dummy post. Attach 
barbed wire to stretcher : 

Dummy post 



■ To dummy 
post 





=== ^ 



Wire stretcher 



Stretching barbed wire. 

Stretch barbed wire until it is fairly taunt. Check 
to be sure the wire is free from any snags on the 
ground or the posts. 

There is no method of knowing when barbed wire 
is properly tensioned. But, wire stretched on hot 
summer days should be sufficiently slack to 
allow contraction in cold weather without 
breaking. 

If wire spans between brace assemblies are longer 
than 20 rods (330 feet, 1/16 mile), wire should 
be supported with smooth wire loops from the top 
of the posts at intervals of 8 to 10 post during 
stretching. The wires of a fence should always be 
stretched from the top strand down to the bottom 





Method of fastening barbed wire to anchor post. 



173 



It is important to wrap the end of the wire back 
on itself. If using staples alone, wire-pull may 
rotate the anchor post when the stretcher is re- 
moved and cause the wire to loosen. It may even 
cause the anchor and brace assembly to come 
apart. This process will be repeated for all the 
strands between the brace assemblies. 



The following schematic illustrates how a mile of 
fence would be constructed with brace assemblies 
every 80 rods (1,320 feet, V4 mile). 



Attach top strand to corner brace and 
lay it out to the next brace. Repeat 
this process to the bottom strand. 




Next, start with the second section of fence. 



Attach the second section of 
fence to the first Vi-mile line 
brace. 



Stretch to the second Vi-mile 
line brace and tie off. 





Attach the third section of 
fence to the second Vi-mile 
line brace. 



Attach the fourth section of 
fence to the third '/4-mile 
line brace. 



Stretch to the third ^-mile 
line brace and tie off. 




Stretch to gate brace at the end of 
the first mile and tie off. 




«l Allow needed 
space for gate 
width. 



;z 



se 



Attach the first section of fence 
to the other side of the gate and 
start the second mile of fence. 






Constructing a mile of fence with brace assemblies every 'A mile. 



174 



A possible fence section between these braces is 
illustrated below. 



4" top 
/ 



^Si 



^ 



!•",• 



U 



Wood or wire stay 



SSniM. 



■ a ■ 



1! 



Wood or wire stay 



l L 

U 



8' 3" 



- . . a 



16' 6' 




Typical fence section between braces. 



Attaching Wire to Posts 

Wires must be securely attached to posts, but some 
movement should be allowed. 

Staples or nails may be used to fasten 12V6 gauge 
galvanized barbed or woven wire to any type post. 
Staples should be made of No. 9 gauge galvanized 
wire. Use lV^-inch long staples for treated woods 
and 3/4-inch staples for hard wood such as osage 
orange. Approximately seventy-two 1%-inch 
staples are contained in 1 pound. 

Steel nails are generally used for fence building. 
Galvanized nails are better. Nails most used are : 



16d common 
20d common 
30d common 
40d common 
50d common 
60d common 
7 x 5/16 inch spikes 



3 ] /2 inches long 

4 inches long 
4V2 inches long 

5 inches long 
5 l A inches long 

6 inches long 



49 per pound 
31 per pound 
24 per pound 
18 per pound 
14 per pound 
11 per pound 
7 per pound 



Staples—Fence staples should always be driven 
into posts so that both points of the staple are in 
different grains of wood. To achieve maximum 
holding power, staples with slash-cut points should 
be driven so their individual legs curve outward, 
not inward. Note that the slash -cut points act as 
wedges that force the legs to curve away from 
the flat surfaces of the points as the staples are 
driven into the wood. 

Staples driven so each leg curves away from the 
vertical centerline of the post have 40 percent 
more pull-out resistance. 

When placing a staple over the wire and against 
the post, rotate the staple slightly (20 to 30 degrees 
of vertical) away from the flat surface of the point 
on the upper leg. 

On level ground and rises, wire pressure tends to 
be downward. To prevent staple pull-out, staples 
should be angled downward. 




Both staple 
points are 
in different 
grains of wood 




Correct 




Incorrect 




V&2S 



downward 



Proper methods of stapling. 



175 



When posts are set in depressions, the wire pressure 
is upward. To prevent staple pull-out, the staples 
should be angled upward. 

On very steep rises or dips, where tensioned line 
wires exert much greater pull-out forces on staples 
and where it is difficult to hold the wires upward 
or downward against the marks on the posts, 
driving two staples in either of the ways shown 
makes the job easier and is good insurance against 
pull-outo 




Steel Post Clips— Hook the post clamp over the 
wire and snap it into position around the post. 



Post 
clamp 




Fastening wire to metal post. 




Rise post, double stapling. 





Dip post, double stapling. 



Staples should hold the wire close to the post. 
This will allow freedom of movement due to 
expansion and contraction of the wire and also 
wire movement due to pressure against the fence 
itself. 



Allow for 
wire movement 




Staples should hold wire close to fence, but allow 
for expansion and movement of the wire. 



Bend the other side over the wire to form a hook. 



Bend to 
form hook k 




Completing fastening of wire to post. 



Wire for Different Types of Posts— Extend wire 
around the post to form a loop and cut wire ends 
to desired length for wrapping. 

Use 12-gauge, galvanized wire or larger. 

Pull the fence against the post and wrap loop ends 
around the wire. 



Tapered 
concrete 
post 




Form loop 
with wire 



Fastening wire to tapered concrete post. 



176 



MMfcMifflJffifAtv -,- ■ -x':: 



To get a snug fit, tap the wire loop with a hammer 
before the second wire end is wrapped. 

Wrap the wire with pliers or a wire splicer. 




Wire 
splicer 



Wrap wire 
ends around 
line wire 



Using wire splicer to attach wire to concrete post. 

Line wires over level terrain should be stapled to 
the line posts only after taking up preliminary 
tension (about 100 pounds) on each wire to 
prevent crossing the wires and stapling them at 
wrong levels on the posts. On uneven terrain, 
relieve preliminary tension on the line wires 
temporarily before stapling them to the posts in 
rises and dips. Tension should be restored to 100 
pounds before stapling wires to posts on level 
terrain. 

Fence staples used for fastening line wires to wood 
posts should never be driven all the way into the 
wood. Doing so not only increases friction and 
prevents taking up uniform tension in long runs of 
wire, but also causes kinks in the wires and results 
in too much strain on short lengths of fence when 
they are subjected to heavy livestock pressure. 
Stapling too tightly also prevents normal 
movement of the wires during expansion and 
contraction from changes in temperature. A 
good rule of thumb is to drive all staples on line 
wires only deep enough to permit removing and 
rethreading the wires through the arches of the 
staples after driving. When driving fence staples, 
do not use the staple to pull the wire to the post. 
Always push the wire tightly against its mark on 
the post with the side of your body or leg before 
driving the staple. 

A major cause of failure in wire fences is staples 
that pull-out. There are many causes: (1) selecting 
improper staples; (2) stringing and stapling the 
wires on the side of the posts away from the live- 
stock; (3) stringing and stapling the wires inside 
of posts in corners or curves; (4) excessive tension 



or slack in the wires; or (5) improperly driving the 
staples into the wood. While few things seem more 
elementary than driving fence staples into wood 
posts, tests conducted by U.S. Steel's Research 
Laboratory show that significant increases in the 
pull-out resistance of staples driven into wood 
posts can be achieved. 

Fence staples used for fastening high tensile 
wires to wood posts should be longer than staples 
used for other types of wire fences (1-3/4 inches 
long, rather than 1%-inches long). Tests show that 
1-3/4 inch x 9-gauge staples driven into wood posts 
have 50 percent more resistance to pull-out than 
lVz-inch x 9-gauge staples driven into the same 
posts. For longer resistance to atmospheric 
corrosion, these longer staples should be manu- 
factured from galvanized wire or hot-dip 
"tumbler" galvanized after forming. Polished or 
bright-finished (ungalvanized) staples are not 
recommended. Staples should have slash-cut 
points. Staples with single legs or with diamond- 
shaped points are not recommended. 



Slash-cut 
point 



Preferred 1%" x 9-gauge staple- 
Fence staples should never be driven vertically 
into wood posts (with both legs parallel with the 
wood grain). Doing so can separate the grain and 
significantly reduce holding power, particularly 
after the posts have had long-term exposure in 
dry climates. Rotating the staples slightly off 
the vertical straddles the grain and provides more 
resistance to pull-out. 

When stringing and tensioning line wires around 
the outsides of posts in corners or curves, where 
friction and not staple pull-out becomes important, 
friction can be reduced by keeping the wires from 
contacting the wood. Leaning the staples before 
driving them is unnecessary, since relatively low 
pull-out force is exerted on them. 





Method of stringing wire on outside corners to 
minimize friction. 



Ill 



When stapling is completed, return to the tension 
indicator spring on the second wire down, measure 
the coil, and turn up the reel until the coil is 
shortened an additional l A inch to 3/4 inch, which 
applies approximately an additional 100 pounds 
tension on the wire, or a total of 250 pounds. 
Some fence builders just take out the slack and 
they do not go through the added expense of using 
tension springs or in-line strainers. 




Tension indicator 



Tensioning wire. 



Using the second wire down as a guide, increase 
the tension on the top wire and the lower wires to 
the same degree by alternately pulling the wires 
toward you and cranking up the ratchets until 
all wires pull toward you about the same distance 
and with the same resistance as the measured 
tension wire. 




Tension all wires 



Final tensioning should be done a full day after 
the initial tensioning to 250 pounds. This allows 
the brace assemblies to move slightly and set. 
Increase the tension on each wire by a click or two 
on each ratcheted in-line wire strainer to provide 
the correct tension on each wire. 

Since stays are attached tightly to the line wires, 
they should not be installed until all wires have 
received final tension. 



Wire stays are usually constructed of No. 9Vn gauge 
galvanized wire. There is a two-wire spiral twist 
design and a one-wire spiral twist with a removable 
straight wire design : 



One-wire spiral 
twist with removable 
straight wire 



Two-wire 
spiral twist 



Typical wire stays. 

The length of the stays should be 2 inches longer 
than the distance between the top and bottom 
wires of the fence. Wire stays are not effective 
visual barriers and they bend easily under pressures 

Wood stays should be constructed of treated 
material and be at least 1-inch thick by IV2 inches 
wide. Presawn angle cuts are easily installed by 
forcing the fence wires into these cuts. Horizontal 
cuts require fencing wires to be attached in the 
wire clips. Some wood stays have no cuts and 
require the fencing wire to be snuggly attached 
with wire clips. Wood stays are strong and rigid. 
They provide a good visual barrier and withstand 
pressure better than wire stays. However, they do 
add weight on wires between braces. 

Fiberglass stays are available in lengths from 
2% to 6 feet. The fencing wire is attached with 
light-duty clips. They are light, strong, 
self -insulating, and long-lasting. 

Wire clips attach fencing wire to steel posts. The 
Davison fence clip holds the fencing wire to both 
wood and steel posts and allows fencing wire to 
move freely through the clip. The slot in the clip 
allows fencing wire spacing to be removed or 
rearranged for a let-down design or for 
accommodating wildlife. 




Davison fence 
clip for wood 
posts 




Davison fence 
clip for steel 
posts 



Wire clips for attaching fencing wire to 
steel and wood posts. 



178 



Snow conditions affect fence design. Choose the 
design most appropriate for your site and adjust 
the post and stay spacing accordingly. 



LIGHT OR NO SNOW WITH STEEP TOPOGRAPHY 



U— 5' -j- 



fc 



'— j— 5'-H— 5'— H 



,=i 



I j Steel posts 
may be used 



25' 



1. Wood or wire stays: 

wood V-k inches x 2 inches x 48 inches 
wire 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire for wood 
stays 

4. Steel posts may be used 



MODERATE SNOW WITH STEEP TOPOGRAPHY 



5' 



5' 



lias. 



5'- 



20'- 



1. Use wood stays only VA inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden 



LIGHT OR NO SNOW WITH LEVEL TOPOGRAPHY 



3' 3"—+— 6' 3"— 4— 6' 3"— f— 6' 3"-J 



^sk 



^ **f 



9' 



25' 



r 



■8' 4' 



J£_ 



8'4" 



aa^_ 



8' 4' 



""I 



-** 



si_ 



Sf 



1 1 

U 



25'- 



1. Wood or wire stays: 

wood IV2 inches x 2 inches x 48 inches 
wire 48 inches • 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire for 
wooden stays 

4. Steel posts may be used 



MODERATE SNOW WITH LEVEL TOPOGRAPHY 



-6' 8" 



■6' 8" 



•h— 6'8"*j 



i 



4: 



V 






20' 



1. Use wooden stays only— IV2 inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden 



179 



HEAVY SNOW WITH STEEP TOPOGRAPHY 




1. Use wooden stays only— 1% inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden^minimum 
standard 



HEAVY SNOW WITH LEVEL TOPOGRAPHY 



k5'4 



"*+- 5'4"-+-5'4'M 




1. Use wooden stays only— VA inches x 2 inches 
x 48 inches 

2. Stays rest solidly on the ground 

3. Use No. 14 galvanized stay tie wire 

4. Steel posts may be used 

5. Every fifth post should be wooden— minimum 
standard 




|fc.,. * U. 

■ 1 ■"'-■ Si " I ■ '■•*»" 

Typical snow fence. 









180 



Tensioning the Wire 

All wire may break and recoil when overstretched. 
This may cause serious injury. Use hand and eye 
protection when handling high tensile fence wire. 
Use caution when stretching any wire. 

The recommended pounds of minimum wire 
tension should also be regarded as the maximum. 
Tension levels above the recommended pounds are 
difficult to maintain and serve no useful purpose 
on the fence. Some fence builders recommended 
just taking the slack out of the wire. 



Locating In-line Wire Strainers— One in-line strainer 
per wire can tension up to 5,000 linear feet of high 
tensile wire on a straight fence over level terrain. 
Longer fences or those with several corners, curves, 
rises, and dips, may require two or more strainers 
per wire, spaced about one-third of the length 
from each end. As a rule on fences over 600 feet 
long, strainers should be installed at midpoint in 
a fence. But, if the fence contains curves, corners, 
rises, and dips, strainers should be installed in the 
section of fence where these most frequently 
occur. Strainers should not be installed 
immediately next to rise or dip posts nor between 
any two posts within a corner or curve. On fences 
600 feet long or less, strainers can be installed at 
either end of the fence. For example, they can be 
placed near a gate for easy accessibility. For best 
appearance, each in-line wire strainer should be 
placed in the same direction on the individual 
wires. 

Maximum length of wire, per in-line wire strainer 
on level terrain : 



Type Of Fence Line 


Wire 


Length/Strainer 

Feet 


Straight 




5,000 


One - 90 degree corner 




3,000 


Two - 90 degree comers 




2,000 


Three - 90 degree corners 




1,500 


Four - 90 degree corners 




1,200 



For uneven terrain, reduce distances by 500 feet 
for each major rise or dip„ 

Proper tension on each wire is the essence of a 
high tensile wire fence Every detail of material 
selection and erection is aimed toward ultimately 
taking up and maintaining the recommended 
pounds of tension on each wire. Sometimes 



referred to as "stretching" or "straining" the 
wires, tensioning is the critical test that determines 
the success or failure of any high tensile wire 
fence. Unlike stringing the wires, tensioning should 
be done from the top wire down for easier separ- 
ation of the wires, and to provide clearance for 
turning the handle of the in-line ratcheted wire 
strainers. Having set all posts, strung and stapled 
all wires on the midposts, on rise and dip posts, 
and having installed the in-line wire strainers, 
proceed as follows: 

Insert the handle in the uppermost in-line wire 
strainer and crank the wire up on the drum until 
the wire is hand-taut and free of other wires. 




Tighten wire with in-line strainer. 



Turn up the drum on the in-line wire strainer 
(with the tension indicator spring behind it) until 
the wire is free and taut. Then, measure the coiled 
portion of the compression spring. Continue 
cranking the drum until the coil on the spring is 
shortened by 1 inch, which means the wire is 
tensioned to 150 pounds. Some tension springs 
may have indicator marks on the cleaves to note 
the tension. 




Measure tension with tension indicator spring. 



181 



Return to the top wire, increase its tension to 
equal that of the lower wire; then working from 
the third wire down, crank all remaining wires to 
about the same tension as was turned up on 
the second wire down with the tension indicator 
spring (approximately 150 pounds). 




Measuring Wire Tension 

Measuring wire tension can be done in several 
ways: (1) With a tension indicator spring; 
(2) with a tension indicator handle with a pre-set 
"click over" release that allows tensioning the wire 
to the set number of pounds; and (3) with a simple 
homemade device. On a straight piece of 3/4 inch 
x 2 inch board 42 inches long, drive two nails on a 
straight line l A inch into the board 40 inches apart 
at Points A and B. Drive a third nail x h inch below 
the line from A to B, at Point C. With nails A and 
B touching the wire, attach a spring scale on the 
center of the wire and pull it toward you until it 
touches the nail at C. Read the number of pounds 
necessary to pull the wire to Point C and multiply 
by 20. A pull of 12V£ pounds times 20 equals a 
tension of 250 pounds on the wire. 







Tensioning wires. 



Measuring wire tension with homemade device. 



With all wires tensioned to about 150 pounds, 
staple all wires on their markers on the line posts. 




On uneven terrain- -The procedure for stringing 
high tensile fence wire on uneven terrain is similar 
to that for level terrain. Except when paying 
out wires along the fence line, stop at each major 
dip post and at each major rise post and, working 
from the bottom wire up, staple the line wires 
onto such posts at their appropriate marks. 

On curves— Line wires should be fastened around 
the outsides of all posts in curves. It depends upon 
which side of the fence will be subject to the 
greater livestock pressure, whether the line wires 
should be strung on the inside or the outside of 
the last line post before a curve, as well as on the 
first line post after a curve. 



Stapling wires. 



182 



Grounding Wire Fences 

All fences using steel wires on non-conductive 
posts must be grounded. A suitable ground should 
be installed in every wire fence at 300-foot 
intervals in moist soils, and at 150-foot intervals in 
dry soils. 

As near as possible to the line wires at each gate 
post and rise post (at 300-foot intervals in moist 
soils, or 150-foot intervals in dry soils) drive a 
6-foot length of 5/8-inch copper-coated rod or 
3/4-inch galvanized new steel pipe 5V£ feet deep 
into the soil. 



Separate the clamped wires so that two are one 
side of the lowest line wire and three are on the 
other. Working from the lowest line wire upward, 
twist the five clamped wires around themselves to 
form a continuous twisted cable. Make sure to 
twist them tightly just beneath and just above 
each next higher line wire so all line wires are 
twisted within and touching the cable. 



Twist and intertwine 
5 ground wires through 
line wires (drawn loosely 
for clarity) 





4& "* 



\ SW deep 

Installing a ground rod. 



Attach a ground rod clamp to the rod or pipe on 
the side nearest to the line wires. Cut five 66-inch 
lengths of 12% gauge high tensile fence wire and 
secure one end of all five wires to the rod or pipe 
with the ground rod clamp. 



Twist ground wires through line wires. 



After lacing in the uppermost line wire, bring all 
five ground wires together and bend them into a 
rounded loop higher than the top of the post and 
insert the ends into a staple driven halfway into 
the post near the top. Drive this staple home to 
secure all five wires as shown. 



Staple 




Five 12V2 gauge wires- 



Staple 




Staple ground wires near top of post. 



Ground rod ■— """ 

ii u 

Grounding fence. 



183 



Tools 



These tools are commonly used for constructing 
barbed wire and high tensile wire fences: 




m 




1/2" ELECTRIC DRILL 



HAND BRACE AND BIT 
3/8" x 8" drill bits 



10-INCH 

ADJUSTABLE 

WRENCH 



NOTCHED 
MARKING 
STICK 




WIRE TWISTING TOOL 




NICOPRESS FENCING TOOL 
with sleeve crimper wire cutter 
and staple puller 



(3ssnEimiE!i*w 




50' CLOTH RULE 
or steel tape 



^r* 



CLAW HAMMER 



PLUMB BOB 




CHAINSAW 



184 






WIRE PAYOUT REEL 
(Spinning Jenny) 



IN -WIRE STRAINERS 



NICOPRESS SLEEVE 



c 



■r 




2 




TENSION TESTER 




TENSION INDICATOR SPRING 




WIRE VICE 



1-3/4" STAPLES 



RELIABLE WIRELINK 



GROUND ROD CLAMP 



NICOTAP SLEEVES 




C 



6' x 5/8" GALVANIZED STEEL ROD 
(ground rod for lightning protection) 





e==3y 



D 




WRAPPING TOOL 



LEATHER GLOVES 



185 



When constructing long fences the following tools 
reduce construction time, but cannot be used 
under some soil and terrain conditions. 




TRACTOR-MOUNTED 
HOLE AUGER 




TRACTOR-MOUNTED 
POST DRIVER 




IN-LINE STRAINER 
TENSIONING HANDLES 




MULTI-REELED WIRE 
PAYOUT MECHANISM 



HEBER SPEED WRENCH 





FURY FENCE BUILDING MACHINE 



ROCK DRILLS 



186 



111 iiiii ii iiii n niii ni iiiinii m-"" '■'"■"^''■i iBfTnnwniTimiiiiinintirni i w M iiiiii i i ii ii i i 



Wood Fences 

All-wood fences are not widely used because of the 
difficulty of transporting materials, the quantity 
of materials needed, and the amount of labor 
required to construct them. However, in some 
situations, all-wood fences are more satisfactory 
than wire fences. All-wood fences stand up well 
in heavy snow, and they are often the most 
esthetically pleasing fence. They have a longer 
maintenance-free life than other fences, but 
repairs are labor intensive. If materials are available 
on-site, construction costs can be quite low. 

Tools 




(3l5ftnEH11IE*Kfc. 




50' CLOTH RULE 
or steel tape 




CROSSCUT HANDSAW 



CHAINSAW 




FENCING PLIERS 




SINGLE BIT AXE 



WOOD CHISELS 



DIGGING & TAMPING BAR 



POST HOLE DIGGER 




4-POUND HAMMER 



(■HHE: 



CLAW HAMMER 




SHOVEL 





TRACTOR-MOUNTED AUGER 



POST DRIVER 



187 



Post And Pole Fences 

Posts can be driven or set. Driven posts should 
have tapered ends so they displace and compact 
the soil around the post. Driven posts are more 
stable than posts set in pre-dug holes. Posts can be 
driven manually in some soils or with a power 
driver attached to a tractor. If the posts are to be 
set in pre-dug holes, the holes may be dug by hand 
or with power diggers. Moist soils compact better 
and give better stability to the post. Set posts 
have blunt ends. 

Posts are set on 8-foot centers. Mark these 
locations in some manner along the fence line, 
unload and lay each post near its marked location 
on the fence line with the pointed end near the 
mark. Posts are set 2Vz feet deep. Depth should be 
marked on each post. 



-48' 



30' 



S 



Pointed end 
toward post 
location 




Mark depth 



Unloading and marking fence posts. 



Mark post diggers with the proper depth. 



Z 



Mark digger 



Marking post hole digger. 



Do not backfill more than 6 inches at a time. 







Tamp well, 
backfill Q 
next 6" 



Once the posts are set, unload the poles along 
the fence Line, where they will be used. The poles 
may be 8 feet or 16 feet long. If 16-foot poles are 
used, stagger their union so it does not occur on 
the same post. A top rail should have a minimum 
diameter of 6 inches. Notch one edge of this top 
rail so there is a flat surface that sets on top of 
the posts. The notch should be at least 1 inch deep. 
The number of poles and the spacing between 
them depends upon the materials available and the 
purpose of the fence. 

The poles should fit snuggly against the posts. This 
provides a wide base so poles do not rock loose. 




Note: 

Drill pole before 

inserting spike 



Fulcrum 
point 



6" backfill 



Backfilling post holes. 



Pole 



Galvanized spike 




Flattened 
surface 



Methods of attaching poles to posts. 



188 



Another post and pole design sets two posts side 
by side with the poles laid between them. 
Depending on the desired fence height, the posts 
will vary in sizes. A 4-foot high fence post should 
be at least 6-feet long, be buried or driven 2 l A feet 
into the ground, and be 3 to 4 inches in diameter. 



A 5-foot high fence post should be at least 8 feet 
long, be buried or driven 3 feet into the ground, 
and have a diameter of 4 to 6 inches. The bottom 
pole rests on a rock or short piece of wood that 
keeps it off the ground and helps prevent wood 
rot. 




Typical post una pole fences. 



189 



Post And Rail Fences 

Post and rail fences are usually made from cedar 
products and are one of the most esthetic fence 
designs. Posts usually have pre-cut holes for rails. 
Holes can be cut at the desired heights. Rails 
may have to be shaped to fit into the holes in the 
posts. 

The following materials are needed to build a post 
and rail fence. 




TAMPING BAR 



IMWi 



HAMMER 




POST HOLE DIGGER 




ii. wiwuiiiimii 




LARGE WOOD CHISEL 



ROUND POINT SHOVEL 





NAILS 




HAND OR ELECTRIC DRILL 



SIX FOOT RULE 



a 



iL 



JL 



CARPENTER'S LEVEL 



NOTCHED MARKING STICK 




STAKES 



HEAVY CORD 




190 



Post Spacing 

Once the fence line has been layed out, measure 
off the post spacings using the gage pole that 
equals the length of the rails. 

If the post spacing does not come out even, post 
spacing can be shortened until the last span is 
almost equal to the other spans of the fence. 




Stakes 



Heavy cord 



Spacing posts. 



Post Holes 

First mark the depth the post is to be buried 
(usually between 2 and 2 l A feet). Then, space the 
rails so there is about as much space between the 
ground rail as between the rest of the rails. Allow 
at least 6 inches of the post to extend above the 
top rail. Keep the holes in line. Use the largest 
posts for the corner posts. 



Allow about 6' 
above top rail 



Mark location of 
holes to be drilled 
in post 



Ground line 




Drill holes around the marked hole for the rails. 
Then, chisel or wood rasp the hole smooth. 



Post 




Marks to 
drill holes 



Drill 



Drilled 
holes 



30" (underground area) 



Marking posts for hole locations and depth in ground. 



Drilled 
holes 




Finished, 
smooth hole 



Drilling and smoothing holes for rails. 



Corner posts will have two holes drilled at 90° 
to each other at each rail position. On corner and 
end posts rail holes do not go all the way through 
the posts. 

Tapering Rail Ends 

If one end of the rail is to be placed in a corner 
or end post, mark the end of the rail so it is the 
approximate size of the hole in the post. If the end 
of the rail is to be placed in a line post, mark the 
end of the rail so it is approximately one-half the 
size of the hole in the post. 




Marked end 
of rail 



Tapering rail ends. 



191 



™"™°™~-~ ~~f»~- 



Setting the Posts and Rails 

Dig a 2V2 foot deep hole for a 7-foot end post. 
Set the end post with the rail holes in the direction 
of the fence line. Be sure the post is straight while 
back filling and tamping. 



Plumb the posts 



End post 
(slots turned in 
direction of fence line) . 

Tamp 

around 
posts 




Setting the end post. 



Once the end post is set, place the correct end of 
the rails in the holes. Use the rails to be sure the 
location of the next hole is correct. 




Slide rails 
into position 



Installing the rails. 



Dig the next post hole and place the post in the 
hole. Insert the rails into the holes and position 
the post in the hole so that the rail is in the correct 
position. Continually plumb the post as it is being 
back filled and tamped. Continue this procedure 
until the fence is completed. Rails may be secured 
with nails 




Secure rails 
jiHTttlU with nails 



Securing the rails. 




Typical post and rail fences. 



192 



Worm Fences 

Worm fences axe expensive to build. They are 
usually built around camping areas or building 
sites where an esthetically pleasing fence is needed 
to keep animals out. There are several worm fence 
designs. 




RAILS 



Split Rail 

Materials : 





2 FOOT STAKES 




5 FOOT STAKES 



(^SrHjeiWEK**^ 




STRING 



TAPE 




CHALK 



If the fence is to be placed on a property boundary 
line, be sure it is surveyed before beginning con- 
struction. 

Establish a line 1 foot in from the surveyed 
property line and stretch a cord between the 
beginning and end stakes. To establish the width 
of the fence, determine the average length of the 
rails, then subtract 2 feet. This is the "effective 
length" of the rails and provides the overhang 
when the rails are stacked. 

Divide the effective length by two . This will give 
the minimum width for stacking rails without 
support. See following example : 

(12 ft - 2 ft)/2 = 5 ft. 
The stacking width can be extended to two-thirds 
of the effective length of the rails. However, if the 
stacking width is made narrower than this, it will 
need buried posts to support it. 

Now that the stacking width is determined, drive 
stakes and string a cord to mark this line also. 



Cord 



Stake 




Boundary line 



Establishing a boundary line. 




First fence 
£. boundary 



Establishing minimum width for stacking rails. 



193 



Before stacking the rails, mark 1 foot in from the 
end of each rail. Place these marks in line with 
the two cords. To prevent rot, place the bottom 
rail on flat rocks or short pieces of rail. Place the 
second rail on top of the first. Be sure the marks 
line up with the cords. 

Continue laying down the bottom and second 
rails for the entire fence line. The bottom rails 
rest on rocks or short pieces of rail and the second 
rails rest on the bottom rails. 

Drive 5-foot stakes at the outside point where 
the rails cross over. Plumb these stakes; they are 
used as guides for stacking the other rails. The 
1-foot end marks on the rails should match 
the cross over points already established. 



It 



Flat rock 
(or rail) 



Lay first rail so marks 
fall under boundary lines 




Mark rail 1 ' from end 



Flat rock 
(or rail) 



Laying the bottom rail. 



5-foot stake outside 
crossover point 




Laying the second rail. 




Continue laying bottom and second rails for the entire fence line. 




Stacking other rails (use 5-foot stakes for guides). 



194 




Worm (rail) fence. 



Log Worm Fences 

There are several log worm fence designs. These 
designs are affected by post size and fence width. 
A log worm fence can be constructed without 
supporting posts. In this case, the fence width is 
quite wide and the size of the logs is 10 inches in 
diameter or better. 

If the fence is to be established on a property 
line, be sure it is surveyed before beginning 
construction. Once the property line is established, 
mark the boundary line with a cord stretched 
between the starting and ending points, 2 feet in 
from the property line. 



Fence's first boundary line 






2' 



Property line (surveyed) f 

Establishing property line and fence line. 



To establish the width of the fence, a second fence 
boundary line needs to be established. This is 
done using the following method : 

1. Determine the length of the logs to be used 
in the fence (usually 16 feet or 18 feet long). 

2. Subtract 4 feet from the length of a log. 

3. Multiply this number by 1/2 or 2/3. 

4. Use this number to establish the second 
fence boundary line by measuring this distance 
from the first fence boundary line. 

Once the two lines have been established, flat 
rocks or short sections of treated logs should be 
used to hold the bottom logs off the ground. 
The logs should be marked 2 feet in from the ends 
These marks are then placed in line with the first 
and second fence boundary lines. The logs are 
then laid as in the split rail worm fence. 



195 



5' stake 




Laying a log worm fence. 




40" (min) 

Completed log worm fence. 



/PpS 



Another design of a log worm fence uses an 
8 inch or larger diameter post 7 feet long and 
buried 2 feet at the inside of the log cross over 
point. Because this design uses buried posts, the 
fence width can be narrower and more of the log's 
length will be used along the fence line. As with 
the other worm fences, establish the first fence 
boundary line 2 feet inside the surveyed property 
line, if the fence is on a property line. The second 
fence boundary line for a 16-foot log is 4 feet 6 
inches inside the first fence boundary line and for 
an 18-foot log it is 5 feet 4 inches inside the first 
fence boundary. The logs have a 2-foot overhang 
on both ends. 

With the first and second fence boundary lines 
established and the length of the logs known, 
establish the cross over points and dig a 2-foot 
deep hole for the 8 inch or larger diameter posts 
at the inside of the cross over points. 



Once the holes are dug and the posts set, the logs 
can be laid against them. The bottom logs should 
be resting on flat rocks or pressure-treated sections 
of logs to help prevent rot. Because of the reduced 
angle between the log spans, the logs need to be 
tied to the posts with No. 9 wire. 

This fence will remain standing long after the set 
posts rot at the ground level. 



5' 4" (for 18' lo 


s) 


js&^ 


4 


6" (for 16' log) 

/ 


7 ' post >y 
(buried 2') 


1 

■ 


7' post ^ 
(buried 2') 




/ 7' post 

f (buried 2') 



Modified log worm fence (using buried upright posts). 



196 



The last log worm fence design is similar to the 
design with the buried post. The width of the fence 
is determined in the same way. The bottom logs 
rest on flat rocks or short sections of logs 16 inches 
in diameter and 4 feet long. The logs are bound 
together by 6-inch posts that rest on rocks, if 
possible, and are tied together at the top and 
bottom with No. 9 gauge wire or two wraps of 
No. 12 Ms gauge wire. The tie posts may be 
eliminated where large, heavy logs are used or 
where the fence width is increased as indicated in 
the previous design. 

Logs smaller than 8 inches in diameter may be used 
if larger diameter logs are not available,, The 
number of logs used to achieve the fence height 
of 54 inches or higher in the lowest span depends 
on the size of the logs used. Place the large end of 
the logs toward the lowest part of a hill. 




Log worm fence. 



Wrap wire around top and bottom 
of posts to keep logs together 



6" diameter (minimum) posts 





mMT 




...» j - ■ .* 

V 



16" diameter log 4' long 
may be used in place of 
flat rocks 



A modified log worm fence. 



Flat rock sills 

(min: 6" x 12" x 16") 

Notes : 

The large end of logs should be on the lower part of the slope 

Cut a shallow notch on the underside of the logs to make them more stable 

Fence logs should be 8" in diameter (minimum) at the small end 



If the worm fence is not on a property line, the 
fence line can be laid wherever it is appropriate 
and the log cross over points set up as indicated in 
the following illustration. 



Fence not on a property line 




A = 2' 3" for 12' span 

A = 2' 8" for 14' span 

B to D = 22' 3" for 12' span 

B to D = 25' 10" for 14' span 

C = V 2 way between B— D 



197 



A log gate used with worm fences is shown below. 
It is expensive compared to other gate designs. 
Notice the short log segments used to build up the 
fence at the gate ends. Also, notice the three 
posts used to tie the logs together. 

The position of the gate depends on the alignment 
of the fence,, 



Note three posts 
to tie logs together 








Log worm fence gate. 



A worm fence log gate. 

Once the worm fence is ended as indicated above, 
any type of gate may be set between the gate ends. 




Log worm fence gate. 



198 



Log And Block Fences 

This fence is similar to the worm fence. It is 
expensive to build, but- once built it is virtually 
maintenance free. The minimum height of the 
fence should be 54 inches. The number of logs and 
blocks used will depend on their size. 

Plans for building log and block fences are 
illustrated: 



As illustrated, the bottom cross logs may have to 
be notched to set on the rocks used. The top logs 
may be wired to the cross blocks or the lower 
logs or, holes can be drilled through the logs and 
blocks and rebar driven through them to keep 
them from moving. 

As with the worm fence, once the log and block 
fence is ended, any type of gate can be built 
between the fence ends. 





SIDE VIEW ' 



Flat rocks 



A log and block fence. 



TOP VIEW 



END BENT 




Bottom footing log 
is 60" wide on end 
panel, 48" long on 
line panels 



SIDE VIEW 



Flat rocks 



A variation of a log and block fence. 



199 







.A Zog and 6/ocfe fence using small-diameter logs. 



Buck And Pole Fence 

Buck fences are sometimes called jack leg fences. 

The first step in building a buck and pole fence is 
to gather the materials. Ideal buck sticks are 
between 5 inches and 12 inches in diameter. Eight- 
inch diameter are most common. Poles or rails 
vary in length from 10 to 20 feet and in diameter 
from 4 to 6 inches. Seasoned or green poles may be 
used, but green poles are heavy to handle. Thin 
poles tend to split when nailed and bend or break 
under snow pressure. A 60d common nail is 
preferred; 40d common nails can be used for the 
extra small pole ends. 

The next step is to cut the mortice joint into the 
buck sticks. Generally two angles are suggested — 
60° for standard bucks and 80° for bucks in severe 
wind areas. The following drawings illustrate how 
to make this mortice joint: 




1" x 2" x 8" 
_jjjj Framing horse 
I II I /, 



I"x4"xl0' 



1" x 8" 

Framing horse for jack leg of buck mortice joints. 



200 



Both legs are cut the same. 



The notch width of a post is determined by the 
diameter of the post it is to match. This fit should 
be snug. The notch should be made one-third to 
one-half way through the post. 

The pattern board is a guide to gauge notch width. 

To fit the mortice joint together, place the high 
point of the cut on each leg together. 




Longer leg 



On steep hill sides, a longer leg is needed on low side. 



For steep hill sides a longer leg is needed for the 
low side of the hill. 

Once the materials are laid out, the bucks must 
be fitted and nailed if this was not done as they 
were being made. If the buck sticks do not fit 
together, trim the outside edges of the mortice 
joint rather than cut the joint wider. 




Do NOT cut ' * 

this wider T "m edge 

Widening tight post notch width. 



This cut makes the 
60° angle between 
the posts 




/ 



Center of post 




2 60d spikes 



This cut makes the 
80 angle between 
the posts. This cut 
is for fences subjected 
to severe winds. 




Center of post 



2 60d spikes 




Cutting 60° and 80° angles on posts. 



201 



Next, hew out a shallow notch on the poles where 
they will contact the buck. The small end of a 
pole need not be notched. The notch helps the 
fence in two ways: First, by helping to stop 
rotation or twisting of the bucks; and second, 
by helping keep the weight of snow, people, or 
animals from rolling the poles downward and 
actually levering the nail out of the buck. 





Preferred 



Fulcrum 



Notching poles to make a stronger fence. 



Next, raise the bucks, position the top pole in the 
upper "V" of the buck, and nail it into position. 
The poles should have a consistant overlap of at 
least 6 inches. Be sure the large ends of the poles 
are all in the same direction. 



At least 6" 
(consistant overlap) 




Large end 



Positioning top pole. 



Once the fence is standing, brace poles need to be 
added for rigidity. A single diagonal pole, an 
inside double pole, or an outside double pole 
brace may provide needed bracing. Opposed 
diagonal braces add extra rigidity. 




Diagonal brace pole 

Adding diagonal brace poles for rigidity. 



When facing a slope, brace against it, then return 
to opposed braces when on the leveL 

Diagonal braces 
(against slope) 




Diagonal bracing on a hillside. 



The following illustration shows how the diagonal 
brace should be attached to the bucks. 

Near side 
outside 




Position in 

high snow country 



Method of attaching diagonal brace to the bucks. 



A double pole inside "X" brace may be used 
instead of two opposing diagonal braces. 




A double pole inside "X" brace. 



202 



A double pole outside "X" brace may be added 
after the poles have been attached to the bucks. 




x ■ r" 



After fence has been completed, a double pole 
"X" brace may be attached for reinforcement. 



Once the inside diagonal or double pole "X" 
braces are attached in the appropriate locations, 
attach the poles to the bucks. On level terrain 
plan a brace for every tenth pole length. The 
number and height of the poles will vary according 
to the animal pressure expected. The standard 
pole pattern is shown ; however, one to six poles 
to one side of a buck have been used. One to two 
poles are used on the opposite side. 

If more than four poles are placed on one side of 
the buck, a tie may have to be added to keep the 
weight of the poles from causing the legs to spread 
out. The tie is usually around 3 inches in diameter 
and placed 1 foot above ground level. 

In high wind areas, every tenth buck should be 
anchored. 

In swampy areas, mud sills should be added to the 
bottom of the bucks to prevent them from sinking 
into the soft soiL 




Tie J 

Using a reinforcing tie to prevent legs from spreading. 




Buried lock 



In high winds, every tenth buck should be anchored. 




Mud sills 
Using mud sills in swampy areas. 




Standard pole configuration. However, many variations are used. 



203 




204 



bibliography" 



Braces 



Barbed And Woven Wire Fences 



Bureau of Land Management. Publication on Wire 
Rock Crib. Lakeview District Office. Lakeview, 
OR. 1980. 

Giese, Henry and Henderson, S. Milton. Farm Fence 
End and Corner Design. Res. Bull. 364. 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Iowa State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, 
IA. 1949. 



Hietala, John S.; Janni, Kevin A.; and Jordan, 
Kenneth A. Design and Analysis of Fence End 
Assemblies. Paper No. 84-4008. American Society 
of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI. 1984. 

Kiwi Fence Systems, Inc. Publication on Kiwi 
Diagonal Brace. Waynesburg, PA. N.D. 

McKenzie, Dan W. and Currier, W.F. Low-Cost 
Diagonal Fence Stainer. Paper No. 84-1624. 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 
St. Joseph, MI. 1984. 

McKenzie, Dan W. and Eisiminger, Bret. Fence 
Failures at Dog Legs and What To Do About 
Them. USDA Forest Service, Equipment 
Development Center, San Dimas, CA. 1985. 

Plant, Robert. Comparison of the Strength of the 
Diagonal Fence Strainer to the Horizontal Fence 
Strainer. Senior Project Report for AE 461 and 
AE 462. Agricultural Engineering Department, 
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 
CA. 1985. 

Taybro Distribution Company. Publication on Easy 
Fence Brace. Orem, UT. N.D. 



American National Standard: American Society for 
Testing and Materials. Standard Specification for 
Design, Fabrication, and Installation of Fences 
Constructed of Wood and Related Materials. 
Philadelphia, PA. 1978. 

Bekaert Steel Wire Corp. Pamphlet - How to Build a 
Gaucho Barbwire Fence.Trving, TX. N.D. 

DeLorenzo, Donald G. Fencing Against Coyotes - 
Extension Circular 916 Extension Service. Oregon 
State University, Corvallis, OR. 1977. 

Jensen, Frank. Fencing Trailer. Range Improvement 
Notes, Vol. 19, No. 1. USDA Forest Service, 
Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 1974. 

Jepson, Ronald; Taylor, R. Garth; and McKenzie, 
Dan W. Rangeland Fencing Systems State-of-the- 
Art Review. Project Report 8322 1201. USDA 
Forest Service Equipment Development Center, 
San Dimas, CA. 1983. 

McNamee, Michael A. and Kinne, Edwin A. 
Pasture and Range Fences. Mountain States 
Regional Publication No. 2R. 1967. 

Sundstrom, Charles. Fence Designs for Livestock 
and Big Game. Range Improvement Notes Vol. II, 
No. 2. 1966. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. Fencing. BLM 
Manual Handbook H-l 741-1. Bureau of Land 
Management. 1985. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Fencing. Standards 
and Specifications. Soil Conservation Service, 
ND. 1984. 



Fencing. Standards 



and Specifications. Soil Conservation Service, 
MT. 1983. 



. . Fencing. Standards 



and Specifications. Soil Conservation Service, 
NE. 1981. 



Fencing. Standards 



and Specifications. Soil Conservation Service, 
CA. 1980. 



205 



High-Tensile Wire Fences 



Jepson, Ronald F. and Taylor, R.G. Draft Copy— 
State-of-the-Art Review of Rangeland Fencing 
Systems. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 
CO. 1981. 

Selders, A.W.; McAninch, J.B.; and Winchcombe, 
R.J. High-Tensile Wire Fencing. Northeast 
Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, NY. 1981. 

United States Steel Corporation. How To Build 
Fences with USS Max -Ten 200 High-Tensile Fence 
Wire. United States Steel, Pittsburgh, PA. 1980. 



Electric Fences 



Advanced Farm Systems, Inc. Articles on Electirc 
Fencing. Bradford, ME. N.D. 

DeCalesta, David S. Building an Electric 
Antipredator Fence. A Pacific Northwest 
Extension Publication, PNW 225. Portland, 
OR. 1983. 

Gallagher Electronic, Ltd. Electric Fencing - 

Do's and Don'ts. Hamilton, New Zealand. 1977. 

. Insultimber Power Fencing Manual. 



Hamilton, New Zealand. N.D. 

. Power Fencing Manual. Hamilton, New 

Zealand. N.D. 

. Permanent Power Fencing Systems. 



Hamilton, New Zealand. N.D. 

. Temporary Power Fencing Systems. 

Hamilton, New Zealand. N.D. 

Garden, G. M. Electric Fencing - The Critical 
Components. New Zealand AEI. Lincoln, New 
Zealand. N.D. 

Gill, Bob. Power Fence and It's Use within the 
Forest Service and BLM Agencies. Gooding, 
ID. N.D. 



Jepson, R.F. and Taylor, R.G. Draft Copy— 

State-of-the-Art Review of Rangeland Fencing 
Systems. Dept. of Range Science, College of 
Forestry and Natural Resources, Colorado State 
University, Fort Collins, CO. 1981. 

Jepson, R.F.; Taylor, R.G.; McKenzie, D.W.; and 
Bartlett, E.T. Electric Fencing for Rangelands. 
Colorado State University, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 1981. 

Lacey, John R. An Introduction to High Tensile, 
Smooth Wire Electric Fencing. Montana 
Cooperative Extension Service, Montana State 
University, Bozeman, MT. 1985. 

Live Wire Products. Articles on Speedrite Fencing 
Products. Rough and Ready, CA. N.D. 

Lord, Paul D., Electric Fence Construction - 
Energizers, Earthing, and Leadouts. Ministry 
of Agriculture and Fisheries Advisory Services, 
Hastings, New Zealand. N.D. 

. Electric Fence Construction - Wires and 

Insulators. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries 
Advisory Services, Hastings, New Zealand. N.D. 



Electric Fence Gates 



Conventional, 
Ministry of Agricul- 



Electric, and Flood Gates. 

ture and Fisheries Advisory Services, Hastings, 

New Zealand. N.D. 

McCutchan, J.C. Electric Fence Design Principles. 
Department of Electrical Engineering, University 
of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. 1980. 

New Zealand Fence Systems. Articles on Pel - 
Electric Fence Systems. Boring, OR. 1984. 

Pel - Precision Electronics, Ltd. Articles on More 
Effective Electric Fencing. Hamilton, New 
Zealand. 1983. 

Robinson, M.D. Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries Advisory Services. Hamilton, New 
Zealand. 1980. 



206 



Wood Fences 



Rouhani-Iranvan, Maliheh and Burton, Robert O. 
Fencing Strategies for Beef and Sheep Producers : 
A Comparative Cost Analysis. West Virginia 
University, Morgantown, WV. 1984. 

Snell Systems, Inc. Pamphlet - The Gallagher/Snell 
Power Fence Catalog. San Antonio, TX. 1984. 

. Loose-leaf Binder of Fencing Articles. 
San Antonio, TX. N.D. 

Turner, J.H. Planning Fences. American Association 
For Vocational Instructional Materials, 
Engineering Center, Athens, GA. 1980. 

Twin Mountain Supply Co., Inc. Electrical Fence 
Material Pamphlet. San Angelo, TX. N.D. 

United States Steel Corporation. Pamphlet - How To 
Build Fences With USS Max-Ten 200 High-Tensile 
Fence Wire. United States Steel, Pittsburgh, PA. 
1980. 



Water Gaps 

American Association for Vocational Instructional 
Materials. Building Fences. 1974. 

US Department of Agriculture. Structural Range 
Improvement Handbook. USDA Forest Service, 
Southern Region, Atlanta, GA. 1984. 

. Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 

USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 
Denver, CO. 1971. 



. Pasture and Range Fences. Rocky Mountain 

Regional Publication No. 2. USDA Forest Service 
Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO. 1965. 



Applefield, Milton; Coleman, Rodney V.;Motsinger, 
Ralph E., Beckwith III, Julian R. Wood Preserva- 
tion and Wood Products Treatment. Univ. 
Georgia Coop. Ext. Serv., Athens, GA. 1986. 

USDA-Forest Service. Structural Range 

Improvement Handbook. USDA Forest Service, 
Northern Region, Missoula, MT. 1978. 

. Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 

USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 
Denver, CO. 1971. 

Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 

USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Region, 
Albuquerque, NM. 1972. 



Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 

USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, 
Ogden, UT. 1969. 

.Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 



USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 
Portland, OR. 1977. 

. Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 



USDA Forest Service, Southern Region, Atlanta, 
GA. 1984. 

.. Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 



USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, 
Milwaukee, WI. 1984. 



Study Exclosures 



US Department of Agriculture. Structural Range 
Improvement Handbook. USDA Forest Service, 
Southern Region, Atlanta, GA. 1984. 

Structural Range Improvement Handbook. 

USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 
Denver, CO. 1971. 



Utility Cages 

US Department of Agriculture. Structural Range 
Improvement Handbook. USDA Forest Service, 
Southern Region, Atlanta, GA. 1984. 



207 




f. 




208 



■ ..,■■■■ ■.■'.■.'..'.' ." ■■"■: 



°Itidex 



Accessibility 3 

Adjustable Wire Strainers 109 

Advantages 5,76 

Alarms 92 

Aluminum Gates 68, 94 

American Society Of Testing Materials 78 

Amperes 84 

Amps 85 

Animals 4,76,84,94,118,131,151 

Antelope Fence 73,147,155 

Antelope Pass 73 

Apron 79 

Arsenic als 78 

Attaching Wire 75 

Augers 80,136,184,187 

Axes 79,187,190 

Barbed Wire 59,78,83,142,171 

Bars 80,81 

Barriers 84 

Batteries 84,88 

Bear Fences 129,130 

Black Insulators 89 

Boundaries 3, 141,195 

Brace And Bits 79,184 

Braces 13,45,75,79,93,115,161,174,202 

Brace Wires 78 

Brackets 95 

Break-Away Fences 162 

Break-Over Fences 117 

Buck And Pole Fences 200 

Buck Fences 56,200 

Buck Posts 51,200 

Buffalo Fences 3 

Cages 151 

Calf Fences 119 

Capacitors 85 

Carpenter's Level 79 

Carpenter's Square 79 

Cattle Fences 119,144,149,152 

Cattleguards 13,70 

Ceramic Insulators 89 

Chainsaws 80,136,184,187 

Chemical Preservatives 76 

Chisels 79,187,190 

Choke Assemblies 96 

Clamps 91 

Clearing Rights-Of-Way 8 

Commercial Gates 68 

Components 87 

Compression Sleeves 79 

Concrete 70,176 

Conduction 84 

Conductors 85 

Conical Cages 152 

Connectors 91 

Construction 8,22,30,45,51,98,104,163 

Consultants 3 

Controlling Livestock 78,84,96,118,131,140 

Controlling People 4,74,78,93,96 

Copper 78 

Cord 79 

Corner Posts 13,75 

Corral Fences 77,140 

Costs 1,5,84,88 

Coulombs 85 

Coyote Fences 125,127,128 

Crayons 79 

Creasote 76 

Cross-Brace 44 

Current 84 

Cut-Off Switches 90 



Deadmen 19,42,47,51 

Deer Fences 123,151,155 

Definition 1 

Designs 4,13 

Diagonal Braces 14,28,75 

Diggers 80,81,136,187 

Dip Posts 100,104,165,176 

Disadvantages 5,76,114 

Disclaimer ii 

Disconnectable Electric Joints 99,102 

Dog Leg Failures 47 

Dowels 79 

Drills 136,184,187,190 

Drivers 136,137,184 

Drive-Through Gate 69,116 

Dry Cell Batteries 84,88 

Earth Pegs 84 
Earth-Return Wires 84 
Electric Fences 83,96,114 
Electric Fence Testers 114 
Electric Flood Gates 117 
Electric Gates 115 
Electric Joints 98 
Electrical Charges 84 
Electrical Currents 84 
Electrical Terms 84 
Electrifying Fences 131 
Electroplastic Netting 94 
Electroplastic Tape 94 
Electroplastic Twine 93 
Elk Fences 151,155 
End Posts 75 
Energy 85 

Environmental Protection 3,77 
Exclosures 129,150 

Failures 13,47 

Fasteners 60, 173 

Fastening Wire 173 

Faults 113 

Feedlot Fences 141 

Feedwire 91,115 

Fence Designs 5 

Fence Tester 114 

Fencing Wire 78 

Fiberglass Gates 69,94 

Fiberglass Posts 134 

Figure-4 Posts 54 

Files 79 

Final Wire 108 

Firehose Cattleguard 71 

Flanged Hinge Pin 58 

Flashers 88 

Flash Plate 89 

Flexible Spring Connectors 91,105 

Flexible Whips 116 

Flood Gates 117,159 

Flow 84 

Framing Horse 52 

Fungi 76 



Galvanized Wire 78,143 

Gate Closer 59 

Gate Fasteners 60 

Gate Hinges 63 

Gate Hook 57 

Gates 13,41,56,115,198 

Gathering Information 3 

Gaucho Wire 144 

Gauge 90 

Goat Fences 94 

Grounding 98,102,105,183 

Guide Wires 112,165 

Hammers 79,136,184,187 

Hard Wood 76 

Harness Snap 56 

Heart Wood 76 

High Tensile Fences 41,45,84,117,139 

High Tensile Wire 90,111,139 

Hinges 56,63,66 

Horizontal Braces 14,75 

Horse Fences 94,120,140 

Ice 160 

Inorganic Arsenicals 78 

Installation 96,106,192 

Installing Rails 192 

Insulators 84,89,98,106 

Insultimbers 97 

Insulatubes 90,102,108,116 

In-Wire Strainers 181 

Irrigation Break-Over Fences 117 

Irrigation Pipes 116 

Irrigation System Gates 116 

Jacklegs 51,56,200 
Joint Clamps 91 
Joules 85 

Kiwi Braces 30 

Ladders 13 

Lamb Fences 121 

Laying Out 8,194 

Laying The Line 98,172 

Leaks 85 

Let-Down Fence 157 

Life Expectancy 49,78,79,84,88,143 

Lightning Arrestor 92,97 

Lightning Protection 79,89,92,96 

Line Clamps 91 

Line Posts 48,166 

Line Wire 91,100,168 

Linseed Oil 77 

Livestock Fences 78,84,96,118,131,141,144,149 

Live Wires 100,105 

Locating 4,109 

Log And Block Fence 199 

Log -Worm Fences 195 



* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:1988-594-194/80139 



209 



Mainline Batteries 84 

Maintenance 5,84,96 

Markers 79 

Materials 75,151 

Measuring Tension 182 

Mechanical Barriers 76 

Mechanical Gate Closers 59 

Metal Gates 62,66 

Mineral Spirits 77 

Moisture 84 

Mold 76 

Moose Fence 155 

Multi-Bulb Electric Fence Testers 114 

Mud Sills 55,203 

Nails 79,175,190 

Nail Apron 7 

Nail Insulators 89 

Netting 94,125,171 

New Zealand Brace 34 

New Zealand Energizers 84 

New Zealand Knot 102 

Nicopress Sleeves 92,102,106,185 

Nicopress Tool 184 

Nicotap Sleeves 185 

Non-Pressurized Treatment 77 

Objectives 3 

Off-Set Brackets 95 

Ohms 85 

Oil-Based Preservatives 76 

Open-Top Cages 154 

Options 83 

Overhead Transmission 86 

Paraffin 77 

Pasture Fences 140 

Pay-Out 163,172,184 

Penta 78 

Pentachlorophenol 77 

People Access 4,74,116 

Permanent Tape 95 

Pins 79 

Pipe Frame Gate 67 

Pivot Irrigation Gate 116 

Planning 3,83 

Plastic Insulators 89,101 

Plastic Pipe 97 

Plastic Ribbon 94 

Pliers 136,184,187 

Plumb-Bob 29,136 

Porcelain Insulators 89,101 

Portable Reels 95 

Post And Pole Fences 188 

Post And Rail Fences 190 

Post Driver 29 

Post-Hole Digger 79,136 

Posts 8,13.41,45.48.57,61,75,77,93,100, 

104,117,139,176,188,191 
Poultry Netting 125 
Power 84 
Power Augers 80 
Predator Fence 126 
Preservatives 76 
Pressure 84 
Pressure-Treating 77 
Problems 5,76,114 
Procedures 1 
Psychological Barriers 84 
Pulsing Sequence 
Pyramid Cages 154 






Rabbit Fences 94 
Rails 76,190,193 
Range Fences 140 
Ravines 111 
Rebars 134 
Reels 95 

Removable Wire 147 
Resistors 85 
Ribbons 94 
Rights-Of-Way 8 
Rise Posts 104 
Rodent Fences 94 
Rock Cribs 14,40 
Rock Jacks 14,39,54 
Rocky Ground 56 
Rods 79,183,185 
Rose Mount Braces 43 
Rules 79 

Safety 4,11,76,87,92,96 

Sap Wood 76 

Saws 79,80 

Securing Rails 192 

Semi-Suspension Fences 150 

Setting Posts And Rails 191 

Sheep Fences 94,144,149,150,152 

Shock Stop 92 

Shorts 85 

Shovels 79,187 

Site Information 3 

Slack 110 

Slide And Saw Guides 52 

Smooth Wire 59,83,90,139 

Snow 3,54,145,158 

SoftWood 76 

Solid-State Energizers 88 

Soil 3,13,55,84,88,132 

Solar Power 88 

Solvent 77 

Solutions 76 

Spacing 11,13,98,104,115,118,144, 

148,163,169,190 
Spacing Diagrams 54,98,104 
Speciality Fences 150 
Splicing 111,170 
Spring Connectors 91,115 
Spring Gates 115 
Spring-Loaded Gates 69 
Square Rock Cribs 14,37 
Staple insulators 89 
Staple Let-Down Fences 158 
Staples 79,105,165,175 
Stapling Wires 165 
Stay Let-Down Fences 157 
Stays 59 
Steel Gates 66,75 
Steel Posts And Braces 75 
Steel Rods 113 
Steel Straps 59,60 
Steel Wire 68 
Sticks 79 
Stiles 13,74,115 
Stirrups 61 
Straddle Jacks 14,35 
Strainers (see Braces or Wire Strainers) 
Stretching 78,173,188 
Stringing Wire 163,168,177 
Storage Batteries 84 
Study Plots 151 
Structural Failures 13 
Swamps 54 

Swinging Gates 56,61,66 
Swinging Fences 161 
Switches 103 



o«^ 



0- 



210 



'&P 



% 



i> 



Tamping Tools 79,184,187 

Tape 94 

Tapping 91 

Temporary Cattleguard 71 

Temporary Fences 131 

Temporary Tape 93 

Tension 78,110,111,137,170,178,181 

Testing 113 

Thawing 55 

Tie-Offs 100,106,163 

Tightening Wire 164,169,173,178,181 

Timber Foundations 71 

Tools 79,136,184,187 

T-Posts 134 

Tractor-Mounted Auger 80 

Training Animals 131 

Transistor Radios 114 

Transmission 86 

Treated Posts 49,77 

Treated Wood 77 

Trigger Gate 64 

Tube Insulators 89 

Tubular Steel Gates 66 

Twine 79,94 

Typography 3 

Ultraviolet Light 89 

Underground Transmission 86 

Unrolling Wire 163,172 

Untreated Posts 49 

Users 3 

Utility Cages 151 

Utilization Cages 152 

Vegetation 34 
Vehicular Traffic 73 
Vise 137 
Visual Impact 4 
Voltage Alarm 92 
Volt Meter 92,113 
Volts 84 
VREW ii,l 

Walking Fences 135 

WalkThroughs 13,74 

Warning Signs 93,96 

Water 3, 159 

Water-Based Preservatives 76 

Water Gaps 159 

Watts 85 

Wet Cell Batteries 88 

Whips 116 

Wildlife 3,73,84,123,129,151 

Wildlife Exclosures 129 

Windchargers 88 

Wire 13,78,84,90,98,106,115,142 

Wire Braces 78 

Wire Fence Cribs 14,40 

Wire Fences 83,139 

Wire Link 137,171,185 

Wire Payout 137,185 

Wire Spacing 104,144,148,163,169 

Wire Stapling 105 

Wire Strainers 90, 109,137,170,181,185 

Wire-Twisting 136,184 

Wiring Diagram 106,108 

Wrap-Around Insulators 108 

Wrapping 185 

Wrenches 136,184 

Wooden Fences 83,187 

Wooden Gates 60 

Wood Posts And Braces 75 

Wood Preservatives 76 

Worm Fences 193 

Woven Wire 59,118,148 

X-Braces 202 

Zinc-coated Wire 78 



BLM IJSRARV 
SC-324M, Bi O^f ^0 

£^^/#&I CENTER 
". u. bu.X 25047 

DENVER, CO 80225-0047 




Mto'M'' 4 




>i 






.*££*!